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  1. What kingdom incorporates mycology?
    Kingdom Fungi
  2. Two groups in Kingdom Fungi
    • Macroscopic fungi: Mushrooms 
    • Microscopic fungi: Molds and yeasts
  3. How do fungi obtain food?
    They are heterotrophic
  4. Mycoses
    • Fungal infection
    • Possibly parasites living on the tissues of other organisms
  5. Growth temp for fungi
    20-40 degrees celcius
  6. Where are fungi present?
    • Air, Dust, Fomites and normal flora
  7. Are fungi normally pathogenic or non pathogenic?
    • Non pathogenic
    • Only 300 species(100,000 total) have been linked to diseases in animals
  8. What causes human Mycoses?
    True fungal pathogens and opportunistic pathogens
  9. True/Primary pathogens
    Fungal pathogen can invade and grow in a health noncompromised host
  10. Termal Dimorphism
    • Ability to grow as different structures
    • Grow as molds at 30 Celsius and yeast at 37 celsius
  11. Adapting to host by switching from hyphal cells to yeast cells is an example of what?
    Thermal Dimorphism
  12. What are the 3 portals of entry for fungi
    • Primary mycoses- Respiratory portal; inhaled
    • Subcutaneous- inoculated skin; trauma
    • Cutaneous and superficial- contamination on skin surface
  13. Virulence Factors of fungi
    • Thermal dimorphism
    • Toxin production
    • capsules and adhesion factos 
    • keratinases
  14. What are some human defense mechanisms against pathogens?
    • Antifungal defenses are the integrity of the barriers and resp. cilia 
    • Most important: Cell mediated immunity(phagocytosis) and inflammation
    • Long term immunity does not occur in most cases
  15. Is immunization effective or non effective for mycotic infections?
    Usually not effective
  16. Some control agents of mycotic infections are what?
    • Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Azoles, nystatin
    • In some cases surgical removal of damaged tissues
  17. 5 types of mycoses
    • Systemic
    • Subcutaneous 
    • Cutaneous 
    • Superficial
    • Opportunistic
  18. 3 types of systemic mycoses
    • Histoplasmosis (ohio valley) 
    • Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever)
    • Blastomycosis (
  19. Systemic Mycoses
    • Deep tissue/Lung pathogens
    • May also involve multi organ infection
    • Healthy people may also become infected
  20. Histoplasma Capsulatum (about, transmission, treatment)
    • Systemic Mycoses
    • Most common true pathogen
    • Causes Histoplasmosis 
    • Dimorphic 
    • Transmission: Bird poop -> mold -> spores -> lungs -> multiple organs(immunocompromised) 
    • Treatment: Amphotericin B/ ketoconazole
  21. Blastomyces dermatitidis (about, transmission, treatment) 
    • Systemic Mycoses
    • Causes blastomycosis 
    • Dimorphic 
    • Can cause chronic cutaneous, bone, and CNS complications
    • Transmission: Inhaled spores from mold in soil
    • Treatment: Amphotericin B
  22. Coccidioides immitis (about, transmission, treatment)
    • Systemic Mycosis
    • Causes coccidioidomycosis (valley fever)
    • Found in ALKALINE soils in southwest US
    • Transmission: same as histo
    • Treatment: Amphotericin B
  23. Subcutaneous Mycoses
    Subdermal/ deep tissue infection but reamins localized 

    Sporothrix schenckii 
  24. Sporothrix schenckii 
    • Subcutaneous Mycoses
    • Causes sporotrichosis (rose-gardeners disease)
    • Dimorphic 
    • Very common that decomposes plany matter in soil
    • Infect appendages and lungs
    • Trasmission: When contaminated plat matter penetrates the skin and the pathogen forms a nodules then spreads to LYMPH NODES
  25. Cutaneous Mycoses
    Infects the skin or finger nails 

  26. Dermatophytoses
    • Cutaneous Mycoses 
    • Infections strictly confined to keratinized epidermis (skin, nails, scalp)
    • AKA ringworm or tinea 
    • Transmission: Natural reservoirs (humans animals and soil); Public showers, swimming areas
    • Long infection period followed by localized inflammation and allergic reactions
  27. Tinea Capitis
    Ringworm of the scalp
  28. Tinea corporis
    Ringworm of the body
  29. Tinea curis
    • "Jock Itch"
    • Ringworm of the groin
  30. Tinea unguium
    Ringworm of the nails
  31. Teina Pedis/Manuum
    Ringworm of the foot/hand
  32. Treatment of dermatophytoses
    Topical antifungal agents
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