psychology of prejudice final

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  1. how do people from different groups see the world?
    • different groups see the world in contrary views
    • ex: members in conflict groups view incidents differently (to benefit themselves)----Palestinians and israeli's
  2. you and your group
    people adopt beliefs of their group and are unaware of other groups view of the world
  3. challenges of intergroup interaction
    Divergent intergroup
    intergroup misunderstanding
    divergent intergroup perspectives and consequent intergroup misunderstanding contribute directly to intergroup competition and mistrust, from which a single incident can ignite intergroup conflict
  4. intergroup interaction
    • when a group interacts with another group
    • potential for reducing prejudice, improve relations and realize benefits of diversity
    • dispels fears of rejection and reduces our uncertainty of others , and intergroup anxiety
  5. opportunities that come from intergroup interactions
    • -learn more about the world generally
    • -group relations
  6. in-group
    categorize others as members of one's own group
  7. out-group
    categorizing others as members of another group
  8. why do we categorize?
    • determines what we expect from them and how we interpret behavior
    • - thinking about others or ourselves in terms of group membership activates biases
    • ------can influence every stage of an interaction
  9. intergroup encounters
    interact with members of another group
  10. reactions and expectations of in-group and out-groups
    • -in-group; expect them to share attitudes and opinions and to be trust worthy
    • -out-group; hold different views, untrustworthy, and competitive
  11. self-fulfilling prophecy
    our expectations become reality
  12. meta-perception
    our beliefs of what others are think about us
  13. negative meta-perceptions
    may motivate us to avoid intergroup interactions altogether
  14. pluralistic ignorance
    when people misinterpret each others beliefs and actions in a way that prevent them from acting positively together
  15. avoidance
    • limits our opportunities to correct our misperceptions of members of another group
    • personal form of segregation that creates and perpetuates unfair judgments of others
  16. intergroup exchange
    • cause you to adopt different posture
    • communication-non verbal beahvior
    • position yourself faraway from the other group
    • close arms
    • less eye contact, blink fast, short glances
    • fidget
  17. intergroup anxiety
    • discomfort assoc. with anticipating or actually interacting with a member of another group
    • relieving intergroup anxiety allows us to see groups in realistic and less threatening ways
  18. anxiety and disadvantage groups
    • related to groups ability to detect bias
    • no conflict needed btw 2 groups engaging in intergroup interaction for them to feel anxious and insecure
  19. negative group based expectations
  20. confirmatory bias
    sensitive to things that confirm their expectations
  21. college roommates: same race vs different cultural groups
    • college roommates:
    • same race roommates-relationships worsen over time
    • different race- deteriorate faster- posses contagion on anxiety
    • -------one roommate has anxiety and it makes the other get anxiety-thus signaling rejection of intergroup  interaction
  22. group based needs
    (needs-based model of reconciliation)
    • 2 clusters:
    • acceptance; you are a good person
    • empowerment; value and status
    • minorities seek power/ competence
    • majorities seek acceptance/ approval
  23. self promoting behaviors
    • attempts to convey an image of power and ingratiating behaviors, which are attempt to get another person like you
    • describe specific accomplishments, achievments, and talents , and shows non verbal confidence
  24. ingratiating behaviors
    (how to respond to what pple said)
    • attempts at humor
    • draw attention to similarities or common acquaintances
    • nodding and smiling
  25. explicit bias
    biases that people are aware of and whose expression they can control
  26. implicit bias
    biases that are activated automatically and sometimes operate unconsciously
  27. Aversive rascism
    • conflicting explicit attitudes and implicit attitudes
    • don't want to face other group you want to avoid them
  28. contact hypothesis
    • 5 conditions needed to reduce bias in intergroup interaction
    • 1. equal status
    • 2. intergroup cooperations
    • 3.  shared groups
    • 4. support of authorities, laws, or customs
    • 5. exchange of info
    • 6. having a least one friend who is a member of the other group
  29. limitations on contact theory
    first hand contact required-this implies we can only improve intergroup relations one or two people at a time
  30. friendship
    (direct contact theory)
    • making a friend (PERSONAL) is important to improve intergroup interaction- bring other elements of contact hyp together
    • having a friend from another group can reduce long term conflicts
    • improve beliefs of the out-group as a whole
    • **empathy
  31. empathy
    • understanding the perspective of the other person so that we respond emotionally to their situations
    • we feel for them on a personal emotional level
  32. secondary transfer effect
    generalization of the benefits of contact to other types of out groups (if similar to the original out-group they made friends with)
  33. extended contact hyp
    (indirect contact)
    in-group members ,mere knowledge of a close positive relationship with a person in an out-group can reduce intergroup bias
  34. stereotype disconfirmation
    when someone from another group does not confirm our stereotypic preconception
  35. cognitive consistency
    we want consistency so when someone disconfirms a idea we dismiss it and classify them as an exception- different from other members in that group
  36. cultural diversity
    • people from different cultural backgrounds interact with each other.
    • can lead to miscommunication and conflict when people from different cultures interact
  37. cultural difference
    • reflected in the structure of influence and authority, goals and objectives, needs and desires, opportunities and outcomes
    • noticing differences is normal
  38. how do difference affect you
    • difference sometime generate anxiety about being excluded or treated badly
    • or, produce strong violent hostility, or subtle forms of bias
  39. power distance index
    • indicated by degree to which subordinates
    • 1. is afraid to disagree with a superior
    • 2. perceives that the superior makes decisions in an autocratic or paternalistic way
    • 3. prefers that the superior makes decisions in an authoritative or paternalistic way
  40. power distance
    • the degree to which members of a culture respect of accept a hierarchy of authority and power
    • reflective degree of power between a dominant and subordinate person in a social system
    • measured from subordinates point of view
  41. low power distance culture
    • power of interacting parties is relatively equal.
    • lower for people with more education and higher occupational stature
    • the less power distance a person or culture prefers, the more they demand fairness, justice, and a role in decision making
  42. high power distance cultures
    • people in power command the respect and unquestioned subordination of those with less power
    • large power distance
    • higher for people from developing countries
    • the more a person or culture accepts a large degree of power distance, the less concerned they are with equality and fairness across status lines
  43. subjective culture
    influence of cultural standards and practices in what is considered right and wrong, good and bad; and which human categories are important, how they are perceived and valued, and the course of interactions within culturally diverse contexts
  44. what does culture tell us
    teaches us what group distinctions matter in society and how different social groups are valued.
  45. cultural transmission or enculturation
    involves acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values that enable a person to become a functioning member of society
  46. how people learn culture
    • people learn their culture through interaction with it(secondary learning)
    • explicit teaching
    • socialization
    • formal learning
    • ----learned from sig. people in your environment and through general socialization processes
  47. own race bias
    • inability to differentiate faces of individuals from other races as well as you do those of your own race.
    • seen in kids- as early as 3mos
    • less time looking at faces from other races
  48. perceptual narrowing
    suggest that human perceptual systems are shaped by experiences to be optimally sensitive to stimuli most commonly encountered in their cultural environment.
  49. cross race friendships
    don't differ from same race friendships in such things as loyalty and emotional security, they were lower in intimacy
  50. voice
    giving people a voice in decision making allows them the opportunity to participate in and have influence on decisions that affect them
  51. closeness
    workers with high power distance orientation would feel more distant from supervisors--not always the case--ex:china
  52. competition
    (assoc with individualistic societies are well-est predictors of prej.)
    comp.; leads to fear that another person's or another groups gain will result in a loss of resources for one's self or for one's group
  53. meritocracy
    (assoc with individualistic societies are well-est predictors of prej.)
    based on the belief that people earn their social status based on their individual talents and efforts
  54. social hierarchy:inferiority or superiority
    based on individual achievements, such as being poor or having only one parent (inferiority), or graduating from top schools or earning a high income (superiority).
  55. worldview
    • his or her concept of what the world is like
    • guides you perception, evaluation, and the interpretation of the world around you
  56. enemyship
    a personal relationship of hatred and malice in which one person desires another person's downfall or attempts to sabotage another person's progress
  57. cultural miscommunication and conflict
    denying the validity of other's beliefs and insisting on one's own view of everyday existence as normative, natural, and correct
  58. tempoagnostic
    time holds personal and cultural meaning but has no inherent view
  59. temponomic view
    • time is unseen arbiter of values, accomplishments, orders and sometimes character
    • time directly affects behavior- efficiency, punctuality, discipline, productivity and achievement are often measured against a template of time
    • time is not a way to measure progress and accomplishment but is a slient bystander that observes, follows, and bends to the whim of the person's desires
  60. impossible to separate time from culture
    • monochromic time is characterized by doing one thing at a time in a sequential pattern-arbitrary, imposed and socially learned
    • polychromic time is characterized by doing many things at once-social and based on transactions
    • m-time and p-time interact
    • work (m-time)
    • play (p-time)
  61. religion
    • human attempt to explain the mystery of existence and guide one's behavior
    • often a foundation for both cultural differences and cultural conflict
  62. relative values
    those that are right for me
  63. absolute values
    those that are right for everyone
  64. value of diversity
    • often leads to more prej and less stereotype
    • in high conflict situations, It may lessen out-group bias
    • reduce stereotype tendencies, appreciate individuality, but tend to discriminate against pple because of their group membership
  65. value of diversity
    • explicitly emphasize and acknowledge the existence and importance of cultural differences
    • reflects beliefs that preserving diff. cultures or cultural ID w/in institutions and societies is desirable and beneficial
    • one should value and respect diff
    • tend to diminish prej, but often increase stereotypeing
  66. value of diversity
    • ID ft of a given envir. that give rise to negative ID contingencies
    • securing a feeling of social belonging in settings where negative ID contingencies exist
  67. culture war
    • clash btw two competing ideas about what is moral, right and good for society
    • ex:gay marriage, woman in combat
    • based on differences among us, and a desire to make one group's characteristics dominant
  68. downside to diversity
    • distance people
    • focus more on differences than commonalities
  69. social stigmatized groups
    more uncertain of the quality of their social bonds and thus more sensitive to issues of social belonging
  70. preventing bias and favoritism
    • green circle
    • children bring pple from diff groups into their own circle
    • group enhanced intervention based on the common in-group ID model
    • activities designed to widen their circles of inclusion to include pple diff from themselves
  71. preventing bias and favoritism
    • multi cultural conscious parenting strategy
    • 1. parents should examine their own narrowing tendencies, biases, and prej. and see how they may be communicating them to their children
    • 2. parent model multicultural friendship and create a home envir that broadens their childrens experiences and perspectives
    • -consistent, honest, and frank communication with children about race, disability, sexual orientation, or social class can be a great help
    • - exposing kids to diverse friends, neighbors and other acquaintances and actively created situations of diversity.
  72. malleable
    • behaviors are affected by a variety of things and could change
    • kids taught this:
    • --more interested in interracial interaction
    • ---more open to experiencing the possibilities of interactions with different people
  73. stereotype replacement
    (bias reducing techn.)
    replacing stereotypical responses with non-stereotypical responses
  74. counter-stereotypic imaging
    (bias reducing techn.)
    imagining in detail counter-stereotypic other pple
  75. individuation
    (bias reducing techn.)
    obtaining specific info about group members to prevent drawing stereotypic inferences about them
  76. perspective taking
    (bias reducing techn.)
    adopting the perspective of a person who is a member of a stereotyped group
  77. increasing opp. for contact
    (bias reducing techn.)
    opt. to encounter and engage in + interactions with counter-stereotypic group members
  78. reduce prej
    • treat like a bad habit
    • learn about the situation that activated the prej and learn how to replace the unconscious bias
  79. implicit prej
    overlearned habits that build up through socialization experiences
  80. habit breaking intervention
    aim to educate participants about implicit bias, and train them to apply bias reduction techn.s to break the prej habit.
Card Set
psychology of prejudice final
final ch 9,10,11
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