Quant Final

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  1. volumetric analysis
    procedure involving a volume of reagent reacting with analyte.
  2. equivalence point
    the exact amount of titrant has been added
  3. end point
    the amount of titrant actually added
  4. blank titration
    an estimation for titration error by using no analyte
  5. primary standard
    the combo of a weighed reagent in a known volume of solution making the titrant. should be 99% pure, should not decompose, should be stable when dried.
  6. standardization
    the concentration of analyte is known but not the titrant
  7. direct titration
    titrant added until a rxn is complete
  8. back titration
    a 2nd titration after a direct titration to determine the excess.
  9. gravimetric titration
    mass instead of volume
  10. systematic error
    error that arises form the method or equipment
  11. random error
    always present and cannot be corrected. arises from different interpretations.
  12. 4 titration methods
    precipitation, redox, complexometric, acid-base
  13. chlorate
  14. Chlorite
  15. nitrate
  16. nitrite
  17. perchlorate
  18. sulfate
  19. sulfite
  20. phosphate
  21. % relative uncertainty =
    (margin of error/measurement) x 100
  22. signal detection limit equation
    SDL= (avg blank)+ 3(sd of readings)
  23. concentration from signals
    (avg sample - avg blank)/ slope
  24. lower limit
    LL= 10SD/slope
  25. detection limit
  26. Transmittance=
    (irradiance of light leaving a sample 'P')/(irradiance of light entering a sample 'P0')
  27. Absorbance=
    log(P0/P)= -log T
  28. Beer's law
    Absorbance = (Epsilon)(b (path length))(concentration)
  29. epsilon in beers law is
    molar absorptivity and is dimensionless.
  30. chromophore
    molecule responsible for light absorption
  31. luminescence
    emission of light from an excited molecule
  32. beer's law fails when
    • "concentration dependent equilibrium.
    • very high concentrations of solute can act as a solvent."
  33. An isosbestic point
    indicates that only two species are present.
  34. Charged species are more soluble in ----- than ----
    water organic solvents
  35. Narrow columns provide ------ resolution than wider columns and require ----- operating pressure and have ------ sample capacity.
    higher higher less
  36. high boiling point generally means ------- retention time
  37. high polarity generally means ------ retention time.
  38. Energy (light) =
    (plank's constant)(frequency) or ((h)(c))/lambda
  39. 'c'
    speed of light
  40. 'v'
  41. lambda
  42. HCL stands for
    hollow cathode lamp
  43. what is the HCL light source and why are they used?
    Ne or Ar gas fills the lamp and a cathode of the same element being analyzed is used. They are needed for lines less than 0.01nm.
  44. visible light exists in ------ wavelength
  45. tungsten lamp used-----
  46. deterium lamp used
  47. deterium for ----- spectrum tungsten for ----- spectrum
    UV Visible
  48. Cs added to FAAS because----
    it has a low energy of ionization which prevents analyte from ionizing.
  49. t'=
    t sub r - t sub m
  50. k' =
    (t')/(t sub m)
  51. k' represents
    capacity or retention factor
  52. t' represents
    adjusted retention time
  53. Plate Theory
    There are a finite number of reactions occurring in a system. Each reaction can be said to be occurring on a plate.
  54. Plate theory equation
    (column length)=(plate height)(# of reactions)
  55. Rate Theory
    theory that states that there is an infinite number of reactions. Uses the van Deemter equation.
  56. Reversed-phase chromatography
    stationary phase is non-polar
  57. Resolution increases with.....
    the change in retention time of the mobile and stationary phase
  58. Increasing the thickness of the stationary phase ------ retention time
  59. which detector can deliver a complete spectrum without scanning
    photodiode array
  60. Ka=
  61. [H+]= (if you started with a Kb)
  62. pH= (think weak acid)
    pKa + log([A-]/[HA])
  63. Kw= (think multiplication & diprotic)
    Ka1 x Kb2 or Ka2 x Kb1
  64. pH= (think di protic)
    1/2(pKa1 + pKa2)
  65. E (electro chem) =
    Cathode V - Anode V
  66. cathode is
    positive and on the right side of the line notation expression
  67. anode is
    negative and on the left side of the line notation expression
  68. nerst equation
    • "E=Eo - (RT/neF) log ([B]^nb/[A]^na)
    • (A is reduced species, B is unreduced species)"
  69. aqua regia is a
    3:1 mix of HCl & HNO3
  70. combination electrode
    combines glass and reference electrodes.
  71. TISAB stands for
    Total ionic strength adjustment buffer
  72. charge balance is
    • "an algebraic statement of electroneutrality.
    • Put all positive species and all negative species on opposite sides and put a coefficient equal to the absolute value of the specie's charge in front."
  73. mass balance is
    a statement of the conservation of matter. H2, e- and H2O can be added to balance them.
  74. ionic strength =
    1/2(sum of all (concentration x |charge| ^2))
  75. log y = (-o.51z^2(pi^.5))/(1+(a(pi^.5)/305))
    Devye Huckel equation
  76. pH is the measure of
    negative log of Hydrogen ion activity
  77. Ksp =
  78. Nerst Equation at 25c
    E = Eo - (0.05916/ne) log([B]^nb/[A]^na)
  79. electrolytic cells are
    non spontaneous
  80. ISE stands for
    Ion Selective Electrode
  81. double junction electrodes
    are used to minimize contact between analyte and KCl in the electrode.
  82. ideal change in mV per pH change
  83. activity coefficients can be ignored
    when solutions are dilute, the ionic interactions are minimal.
  84. Kw= (think multiplication)
  85. Formal concentration =
    [HA] + [A-]
  86. pOH =
    -log(Kw)- pH
  87. Kw =
    Ka x Kb = 10^-14
  88. fraction of dissociation (alpha) =
    alpha = [A-]/([A-]+[HA])
  89. pH = (think acid base)
    pKa + log ([B]/[A])
  90. [H2A]or[HA-]or{A2-]= (think di protic)
    [H+]^2 or (k1[H+]) or K1K2 / ([H+]^2+[H+]K1+K1K2)
  91. Concentration of a solid =
  92. 'h'
    planks constant
  93. KHP stands for
    Potassium hydrogen phthalate
  94. Urea chemical formula
  95. A formal report has (minus title page)
    • "-abstract
    • -into
    • -experimental
    • -data, calc, results
    • -discussion & conclusion
    • -references"
  96. NaOH KHP Rxn
    KHP+ NaOH --> KNaP + H2O
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Quant Final
Quant Final
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