- - 18-24 Highest rate of binge
- - What is considered binge
- drinking? 5 or more drinks
- - 25-44 highest rate of
- Men drink more than women.
- - More education is
- associated with more drinking.
- -------------->What is the link of education to drinking? As
- education increases so does drinking.
- - Heavy drinkers expeience
- thiamin deficiency which is worsened by their poor nutrition.
- ------> Alcohol accelerates progression of thiamin related
- brain damage.
Physiology of alcohol ingestion
- - Alcohol dehydrogenase – in
- the liver no other function except to metabolize alcohol. Breaks down alcohol
- into aldehyde which is a very toxic chemical
- - Aldehyde Dehydrogenase –
- converts aldehyde to acetic acid.
- - Alcohol dehydrogenase
- deficiency – unable to process alcohol well, so small amounts create flushing
- and illness.
- - Metabolized in the liver –
- fat then scar tissue then damage. May have to get liver transplant.
Alcohol, metabolism and absorption
- - How the body processes
- alcohol. (BAC)
- - J shaped curve if you drink
- a little you are better off than a heavy drinker when it comes to heart
- - Your body weight depends on
- how quickly you will absorb the alcohol
- Tolerance- builds with continued use.
- -Women absorb alcohol more
- - restlessness, irritability
- and, agitation.
- - built up changes in gaba.
- When you quit your body must adjust.
- - tremors, seizures, and
Dopamine reinforcement pathways
- - GABA- inhibitory
- transmitter- regulates mood and behavior
- - Alcohol, barbiturates, and
- anxiety meds – are similar to the shape of GABA
- Promotes inhibition
- - - How does tolerance
- develop molecularly and what is the response?
- Need increased drugs to get the same effects because GABA, an inhibitory
- molecule, becomes associated with the behavior.
direct physical effects of alcohol
- - What is the effect of
- substance dependence on alcohol?
- ------->loss of control, impairment in critical function,
- and physical adaptation to the substance.
- - Tolerance- the more you
- drink the more your body tries to adapt the receptors.
cirrhosis of the liver
- - What is the development and
- order of Cirrhosis?
- - ---->Starts with fibrosis this can cause fat to deposit
- and scar tissue, this develops into connective tissue growth resulting in
cancer of esophagus
- - How does alcohol decrease
- CVD problems? Increases HDL levels.
- - Large amounts and heavy
- drinking can create heart problems
- - Social drinking may in fact
- benefit heart health.
Fetal Alcohol syndrome
- - a pattern of mental and
- physical defects that can develop in a fetus in association with high levels of
- alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
negative effects of drinking
injuries, violence, suicide/ homicide, crime, and poor sexual and emotional judgement (more likely to get sexually assaulted)
benefits of alcohol
- - Decreases CVD problems by
- increasing HDL levels
- - may protects against
- ischemic strokes by reducing clotting
- - May decrease type 2
- diabetes and might lower risk of gallstones
- - Could even decrease h pylori which is associated with ulcers.
- - May be related to decreased
- risk of Alzheimer’s.
- - Alcohol may increase the
- risk of hemorrhagic strokes, but may protect against ischemic strokes by
- reducing clotting.
the disease model
- - Gamma Alcoholism- loss of
- control once drinking begins
- - Delta Alcoholism –
- inability to abstain from drinking.
Alcohol Dependency Syndrome
- - Alcohol dependent people
- have impaired control; people drink heavily because they do not exercise
- control over their drinking.
life of party
- Produces alterations in cognitive thinking
- ---- - People will begin to have
- exaggerated thoughts.
- - ------They escape tension or process
- information differently
- ------ - They escape reality.
social learning model
- cultural norm
- conceptualized drinking as learned behaviors
- ---why pple begin to drink
- -------the taste of alcohol and the immediate effects of pleasure
- -------person escapes the unpleasant situation
- -------learn to drink by observing others
- --why they conti to drink in moderations
- --why some pple drink in a harmful manner
- --------they drink with other heavy drinkers
TX for alcohol
- Spontaneous remission
- Unassisted change or natural recovery.
- have social support but not formal therapy.
- - Interventions
- -Motivational Interviewing – therapists convey their empathy with the clients
- situation and help them resolve their issues.
- -Alcoholics Anonymous.
- - A person must maintain total abstinence from alcohol and everything else that can
- lead to drinking alcohol
- -Eliminate social connections
AVE and alcohol
- - aimed at changing
- cognitions so that the addict comes to believe that one slip does not equal
- - Have a plan at for recovery
- and what to do if relapse happens.
- - Narcotics anonymous – self
- help groups
- - Abuse leads to legal,
- financial, interpersonal problems
- - Heroin, morphine, and codeine
- are classified as narcotics and are used to manage pain or find pleasure.
- - Short Term symptoms of
- Heroin use – dry mouth, euphoria, warm skin, slowed breathing and weak muscles.
- - Low doses make people feel
- relaxed and even euphoric
- - High doses can cause loss
- of consciousness and result in coma and death as a result of inhibitory effects
- on the brain
- - Benzodiazepines, Alcohol
- depresses the system at GABA receptors.
- -Caffeine interferes with adenosine (neurotransmitter); at multiple sites in the
- brain including the reticular formation which regulates attention and sleep.
- -What kind of effects are commonly associated with caffeine ingestion?
- -Increased heart rate (constricts blood vessels), Relaxes air passages to
- improve breathing, and allows some muscles to contract more easily.
- -Positive effects of caffeine? Attention, lower CVD, lower diabetes and higher
- -Negative effects of caffeine? Anxiety and addictions, high blood pressure,
- reduced motor control and peeing too much.
- - LSD, mescaline and
- psilocybin are classified as hallucinogens because they release serotonin
- - Can have hallucinogenic
- effects, relaxation, memory impairment, euphoria, increased appetite, impaired
- - Stalk of marijuana can also
- be used to make materials and food.
- - Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
- is the active chemical in marijuana that travels from the lungs to the
- bloodstream to the brain.
- - Four primary areas affected
- by THC – STM, coordination, learning, and problem solving.
- - High concentrations of
- cannabinoid receptors exist in the following three brain structures –
- hippocampus, cerebellum, and the basal ganglia.
- - enhance athletic
- - Thickening of vocal cords,
- enlargement of larynx, increase muscle decrease body fat.