Psychological Disorders

  1. Identify criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.
    • Psychological disorders are diagnosed when behavior is deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional

    • what is considered deviant may vary from culture to culture
  2. Contrast the medical model of psychological disorders with the biopsychosocial perspective on disordered behavior.

    • When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, the medical model

    • started looking at physical causes of these disorders.
    • The Biopsychosocial Perspective Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
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  3. Describe the goals and content of the DSM-IV-TR.

    American Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders
  4. Discuss the potential dangers and benefits of using diagnostic labels
    • Critics of the

    • DSM-IV-TR argue that labels can stigmatize individuals.
    • Labels can be

    • helpful for health care professionals, communicating with one another and
    • establishing therapy.
    • But what does the

    • label mean?
    • “Insanity” labels

    • raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who
    • have disorders and have committed crimes.
  5. Discuss the prevalence of psychological disorders, and summarize the findings on the link between poverty and serious psychological disorders.

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  6. Define anxiety disorder, and explain how this condition differs from normal feelings of stress, tension, or uneasiness.

    Feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety.

    1.Generalized anxiety disorders


    3.Panic disorders

    4.Obsessive-compulsive disorders
  7. Contrast the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.
    • Persistent worry about several areas and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension, and autonomic arousel are symtoms of generalized anxiety disorder
    • Panic Disorder's symotoms are:

    —Recurrent episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking or ther frightening sensations (“panic attack”).— that seem to come out of nowhere and peak within a few minutes

    — Persistent fear of implications of the attacks having another attack

    People with panic disorder may avoid situations that cause it (agoraphobia).
  8. What is a Phobia?
    • Persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation
    • that causes significant distress or interferes with functioning
  9. Explain how a phobia differs from fears we all experience
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  10. Describe the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
    • Persistence of

    • unwanted thoughts (obsessions) that cause distress; and/or urge to engage in rituals (compulsions) in an attempt to
    • relieve the distress.
  11. | Describe the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder,
    and discuss survivor resiliency.
    • Four or more weeks of

    • the following symptoms after an event in which death or serious bodily
    • harm is experienced or expected:
    • 1.Re-experiencing
    • nightmares,
    • haunting memories
    • 2. Numbing/withdrawal
    • 3.Heightened
    • arousal
    • easily
    • startled

    • Resilience to PTSD

    Only about 10% of women and 20% of men develop PTSD after experiencing a traumatic event.

    Holocaust survivors have shown remarkable resilience against traumatic situations.
  12. Learning theorists suggest that ____ ____ or _____ _____ leads to
    anxiety. This anxiety then gets associated with other objects or events
    (stimulus generalization) and gets reinforced
    fear conditioning, observational learning
  13. List The Biological influences on Anxiety
    • • Natural Selection has led our
    • ancestors to learn to fear snakes, spiders, and other animals.

    • • Anxiety is linked with excessive activity in certain brain
    • circuits.

    • Twins studies suggest that our genes may be partly responsible for developing fears and anxiety. Twins are more likely to share phobias.
  14. What is Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)?
    • Is a disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities (formerly
    • called multiple personality disorder).
  15. with DID Skeptical critics argue...
    —diagnosis of DID has increased in the late 20th century.

    — DID has not been found in other countries.

    DID may be induced by therapy through role-playing by people open to a therapist’s suggestions.
  16. Contrast the three clusters of personality disorders, and describe the behaviors and brain activity associated with antisocial personality disorders.
    the Weird, Wild and the Worried

    • —schizoid personality disorder
    • narcissistic personality disorder
    • antisocial personality disorder
  17. Personality Disorders are...
    Characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

    May or may not be considered problematic from the person’s point of view.
  18. Like other disorders, personality disorders have biological and psychological influences....example...
    • For example, young people with antisocial personality disorder respond to threatening situations
    • with lower levels of stress hormones than do others their age.
  19. Emotional extremes of mood disorders come in two principal forms...
    • 1.Major
    • depressive disorder
    • 2.Bipolar
    • disorder
  20. Define mood disorders
  21. Define mood disorders, and contrast major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
    Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions.

    Biopolar disorder is the Presence of alternating periods of major depression and mania (formerly called manic-depressive disorder).
  22. Does Mood Disorder: Biological Perspective have any genetic influences?
    • yes
    • •Mood disorders run in families.

    • Rates of depression is higher in identical (50%) than fraternal twins (20%).

    • rates of bipolar disorder are high between identical twins (40% and 70%).
  23. Reduction of certain neurotransmitters ______ and _____ has been
    implicated in depression.
    (norepinephrine serotonin
  24. Summarize the contribution of the social-cognitive perspective to the study of depression, and describe the events in the cycle of depression.
    The social-cognitive perspective suggests that depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles.

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  25. Nearly 1 in a 100 suffer from _____ and world over 24 million people suffer from this disease
  26. What is the Age of Onset for Schizophrenia?
    Strikes young people as they mature into adults.
  27. Describe the symptoms of schizophrenia
    1.Disorganized and delusional thinking.

    2.Disturbed perceptions.

    3.Inappropriate emotions and actions.

    4.Social and functional deficits.
  28. differentiate delusion and hallucinations.
    • A schizophrenic person may perceive things that are not there (hallucinations).
    • Frequently such hallucinations are auditory (voices), and less often visual, somatosensory,
    • olfactory or gustatory.

    • —Examples of delusions:
    • —Delusions of control
    • —Delusions of reference
    • —Grandiose delusions
    • —Persecutory delusions
    • —Religious delusions
  29. positive symptoms of schizophrenia are things that a person suffering with it have that other people dont...some are...
Card Set
Psychological Disorders
pt 1