1. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    • Tells the browser this is an eXtensibleMarkup Language (XML) file using
    • the UFT-8 character set..
  2. <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
    • This is the Document Type Definition (DTD) specifies that this
    • particular
    • XML file is one of three "flavours" of XHTML 1.0 (strict,
    • transitional and
    • frameset) designed for web page applications.
    • Almost all of your work for this module should conform to the strict
    • standard.
  3. <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
    • This is the root element of the document containing the data
    • (the
    • first two lines are metadata describing the data structure). The html

    element needs an attribute (xmlns) and value (http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml)

    related to the specification of the xhtml used in the file.
  4. <!-- template of basic structure of an xhtml file -->
    This is a comment that the browser ignores but it's there to help people

    • understand the source code.
    • XHTML comments begin with <!-- and finish with -->

  5. /* <![CDATA[ */
    • Start of CDATA (character data) section enclosed in CSS comments means
    • CSS will be ignored by XHTML validator.
  6. /* ]]> */
    • Opening and closing CDATA directives enclosed in CSS comments so that
    • CDAT directives ignored by CSS validator.
  7. whats an element
    • The first word or character that appears inside the "<"
    • opening bracket is called the element. An
    • element is a command that tells the browser to do something, such as <p>.
  8. what are attributes?
    • Attributes that appear to the right of the element are separated by a
    • space, and followed by an equal sign. The
    • value of the attribute is contained in quotes. In the following
    • example the element is p, the attribute
    • is name, and the value of that attribute is fred.
    • <p name="fred">This is a bit of text.</p>
  9. how do you get a manual line break?
  10. how do you get a horizontal rule tag?
  11. inline elements which should be used for structuring information rather
    than formatting text.
    • code
    • em
    • pre
    • strong
  12. <code>
    Tells the browser that the text is a piece of computer program code.
  13. <em>
    • Tells the browser that the enclosed text is emphasised in some way (how emphasis is applied will depend on the
    • browser and style).
  14. <pre>
    • Tells the browser to retain the spaces and newlines used in the source code. Normally a brower treats
    • combinations spaces, tabs and new lines as a single space.ells the browser that the enclosed text is "strong" or important.
  15. <strong>
    Tells the browser that the enclosed text is "strong" or important.
  16. &amp;
    Signifies an ampersand or & character
  17. &copy;
    Signifies a copyright or © symbol
  18. &gt;
    Signifies a < or greater than character
  19. &lt;
    Signifies a < or less than character
  20. &nbsp;
    • Non breaking space - if you want multiple spaces you should put &nbsp; for each blank space
    • you want to appear in the web page.
Card Set
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