Geog 111: Part 4

  1. New School and Old School Flower
    • -Old: anything can come in, naked seed, gymnosperms: Pines, Gingkos, fir
    • -New: specialized pollinator that can fit in, evolved recently with insects, angiosperms
  2. Fig
    • -Parasite like
    • -Inside out flower
    • -Tropics
  3. Types of Fruits
    • 1. deniscent
    • 2. indeniscent
    • 3. fleshy
  4. Dehiscent
    • -opens to spread seeds
    • -fruit splits open at maturity
    • -Ex. Peas
  5. Pollination
    • -Wind pollinated;
    • -Animal pollinated: Bee pollination,
    • -Butterflies (White and yellow flower [Lawdig pad]),
    • -Moth (white flower)
    • Humming birds- red flowers
    • -Bats in tropics- Huge white flowers.
  6. Indehiscent
    • -no opening to spread seeds
    • -Ex.Wheat
  7. Autochory
    • -seeds disperse themselves
    • -like peas
  8. Anemochory
    • -wind dispersal for seeds
    • -like cotton and dandlion
  9. Hydrochory
    • -seed dispersal through water
    • -like coconut
  10. Zoochory
    -seed dispersal by animals, usually digestion and poop is involved
  11. Anthrocory
    -dispersed by humans (WE PLANT STUFF!!!)
  12. Seratonous
    seed-only will open in fire, fire dependant
  13. Why are urban forests important?
    Trees clean water, air, and noise pollution
  14. Was Los Angeles a forest?
    -No, used to be shrublands/grasslands, when europeans came 150,000 years ago brought cultural things (trees) with them planted them here.
  15. What benefits do trees have for LA?
    • -Aesthetics: 80% of tree's value
    • -oxygen/clean air filtration, filters dust
    • -noise barrier, filters/purifies water
    • -shade/cooler temps
  16. What was the Million Tree Project?
    Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa said in first day in office he wanted to plant 1 million trees in Los Angeles.-lowers energy bills, higher property values, cleaner air/water, social justice, etc.
  17. Costs of trees in LA
    • 1. Water
    • 2.
  18. Density of trees in LA
    • 1 Hectare=100 tree individuals
    • 80% private land, 20% public land
  19. Sage Hill
    -Urban forests, grasslands, coastal sage, chaparral (hard brush), oak woodland, Riparian area with sycamores, non native grasses
  20. Non-native grasses
    Annuals turn brown in the fall and winter, brown grasses are non-native
  21. What are wildflowers and are they still in LA?
    • Yes, still in LA
    • -Wildflowers are uncultivated variety of flowers or a flower growing freely with no human intervention
  22. How were Oaks used by Native Indians?
    • -acorns 
    • -staple in their diet
  23. What is vegetation and what is flora?
    • -flora: list of species
    • -vegetation: the plants in nature
  24. History of California
    37 million years ago we had a tropical area, we had lots of coffee trees, palm trees (tropical) but then there was a sudden shift in climate- started to get colder
  25. Neotropical Tertiary Geoflora, Date and Relicts
    palms, coffee, laurel
  26. Arcto-Tertiary Geofloras
    • Separated areas of floral assemblage- got drier
    • -Relicts: hemlock, spruce, pinnacae Maple, alder, elm
  27. Ice age impacts
    Forest is now at the bottom of the mountain
  28. Impacts of Sierra Nevada uplift
    • Change in climate and orographic processes
    • -Mountains in the coats, have rain shadows
    • - rains on the front of the mountain but dry behind it
  29. What is a Riparian Forest?
    Forested area of land adjacent to a body of water such as a river, stream, pond, lake, estuary, canal, reservoir...etc
  30. Orographic precipitation
    Precipitation generated by a forced upward movement of air upon encountering a physiographic upland (either horizontal or vertical)
  31. Where are the five Mediterranean Regions?
    • 1. Central Chile
    • 2. SW Australia
    • 3. California
    • 4. Mediterranean
    • 5. South Africa
  32. Flora of Valley and Foothills
    • -Aesculus californica (California Buckeye)
    • -Juglans californica (Black Walnut)
    • -Quercus arigolia (Coast Live Oak)
    • -Quercus engelmannii (Engelman Oak)
  33. Oaks (Quercus) Ecology
    • -20 Oak speicies
    • -Half are endemic
  34. Riparian Areas
    95% gone because it occurs along rivers, we’ve replaced them with agriculture (rice)
  35. Chaparral
    • Shrub type, chaparral and fire
    • -evidence that this has been gone for 5 million years
    • -Adenostoma fasciculatum (Chamise)
    • -Arctostaphylos (Heartlead Manzanita)
  36. North Coastal Forests: Where, Why, Tree Species
    • - climate is wet
    • - redwood
    • - 96% cut down
    • - Douglas fir
  37. Closed-cone Pine Forests
    • -coned dont open unless theres a fire
    • - monterey pine
    • - how LA looked during ice age
    • -Pinus radiata
  38. Montane Forests
    • -Pinus ponderosa – most common tree in this area
    • -Fire- burned all the time before
    • -Yellow pine forest, lodgepole-Red Fir Forest
    • -Abies concolor
    • -Calocedrus decurrens
    • -Pinus coulteri
    • -Pinus ponderosa
    • -Sequoiadendron giganteum
  39. Subalpine Forests
    • Subalpine forest – right along the top, near the tree line.
    • • Ancient brittle conePinus longevia – oldest trees, contain history of rainfall and temp in California
    • • Montane forest below that – ponderosa
    • • Chaparel forest below that
    • -Pinus longevia (Bristlecone pine)
  40. Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands:
    • -rain shadow side of mountain
    • -Junipers –scales
    • -Pines – single leaf pine, pinus monophyle
    • -Low diversity – only two or three types of leaves
    • -Pine nuts here
    • -Juniperus Canifornica
    • -Pinus monophylla
  41. Joshua Tree Woodlands
    • -yucca brevifolia
    • -Short, leaf/flower
    • -Occur on rain shadow side of California, high desert
    • -Pollinated by one month- the yucca moth, evolved to the plant
  42. Tallest tree
    • Sequoia Sempervirens (CA Redwoods)
    • -over 100m tall
    • -adapted to fire
    • -conical shape
  43. Oldest Tree
    Pinus longevia
  44. Largest Tree
    • General Sherman
    • -Sequoiadendron giganteum
Card Set
Geog 111: Part 4