1. what are Macro minerals and definition
    Macro-minerals are minerals your body needs in larger amounts.300-3000 mg daily needed. 

    • Calcium • Magnesium • Phosphorus • Sodium • Potassium • Iron
  2. Micro minerals + definition
    we need traces of them daily - 30μg-30mg
  3. what are minerals
    • Inorganic substances various bodily processes as well as normal development are reliant on adequate intakes of them.
    • mainly used to regulate and balance our body chemistry. the exception is magnesium, phosphorus and calcium which are the major constituents of bone.
    • 4% of the body is made of minerals
  4. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
  5. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
  6. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
  7. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
  8. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
  9. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
  10. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
  11. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
    helpers - stomach acid, vit A, E, B6, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus
    robbers - phytates, oxalates, hight calcium intake, copper, low protein intake, excess sugar intake, stress, alcohol prevents uptake
    • componenet of over 200 enzymes in the body, DNA and RNA, essential for growth, important for healing, controls hormones, aids ability to deal with stress effectively, promotes healthy nervous system and brain especially in he growing foetus, aids bone and teeth formation, helps hair to bloom, essencial for constant energy.
    • deficiency: poor sense of taste or smell, white marks on more than 2 fingernails, frequent infections, stretch marks, acne or greasy skin, low fertility, pale skin, tendency to depression, loss of appetite.
    • toxicity - can result in gastrointestinal irritation, vomiting anemia, reduced growth, stiffness, depraved appetite and death
    • sources - oysters, ginger root, lamb, pecan nuts, dried split peas, haddock, green peas, egg yolks, Brasil nuts, oats, almonds.
  12. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
    cooper - too much cooper can cause zinc deficiency, too much zinc can lead to cooper deficiency. 
    helpers - pill
    robbers - high intake of vit C, zink and iron, phytates interfere with absorption
    • needed to absorb and use IRON. It's part of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. Needed to make Adenosin Triphosphate - the energy the body runs on. Synthesis of some hormones required cooper, as does collagen and tyrosinases -  enzyme that puts the pigmant into the skin
    • necessary for act of respiration - required with Iron for O2 to be synthesized in the red blood cells.
    • It's speculated it plays role in bringing on labour
    • deficiency - raises blood cholesterol and damages blood vessels  - symptoms - anemia, Oedema, brittle bones, irritability, loss of sense of taste; rheumatoid arthritis, 
    • excess: can cause vomitting, diarrhea, muscular pain and dementia, but toxicity from food intake is unlikely, some genetic disorders create a cooper toxicity;
    • schisophrenia, cardioviscular diseases, possibly rheumatoid arthritis, post-natal depression
    • Sources - generally those rich in Iron
  13. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
    helpers - vit E, A, C
    robbers: refined food, modern farming techniques
    • antioxidant - protection against free radicals and carcinogens, reduces inflammation, stimulatesimmune system to fight infections, promotes a healthy heart and helps vit E's action, required for male reproductive system, needed for metabolism
    • deficiency: family history of cancer, sighns of premature ageing, cataracts, high blood pressure, frequent infections
    • over dose - causes vomiting, diarrhea, loss of hair and nails, and lesions on the skin and nervous system
    • sources: tuna, sea food, mushrooms, cottage cheese, cabbage, beef liver, couragettes, cod chicken
  14. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
    • occurring in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, and therefore in many proteins. Sulphur is absorbed by plants from soil.
    • function: joint protection and repair, antioxidant/free radical scavenger, protection and strengthening of the skin, hair and nail tissue, detoxification, heavy metal removal and general connective tissue repair. Helps maintain the oxygen balance necessary for proper brain function.
  15. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
    • helps to form healthy bones, cartilage, tissues and nerves, activates more than 20 enzymes including an antioxidant enzyme system, stabilizes blood sugar, promotes healthy DNA and RNA, essential for reproduction and red blood synthesis, important for insulin production, reduces cell damage, required for brain function.
    • deficiency: muscles twitches, childhood growing pains, dizziness or poor sense of balance, fits, convulsions, sore knees, joint pain
    • sources: watercress, pineapple, okra, endive, blackberries, raspberries, lettuce, grapes, oats, beetroot, celery
    • helpers - Zinc, vit E, B1, C, K
    • robbers - antibiotics, alcohol, refined foods, calcium, phosphorus.
  16. Details of sources, functions and signs of deficiencies
    • Iodine is a trace element found in seawater, rocks and some types of soil, naturally present in some foods, added to others available as a dietary supplement.
    • functions: makes thyroid hormones for normal thyroid function, these hormones control the body's metabloism and many other important functions, body needs thyroid hormones for proper bone and brain development during pregnancy and infancy.
    • sources: sea fish and shellfish, Dairy products , plant foods such as cereals and grains, but the levels vary depending on the amount of iodine in the soil where the plants are grown.
    • deficiency: Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hyphthyroidism. A goitre (sometimes spelt 'goiter') is an abnormal swelling of the thyroid gland that causes a lump to form in the throat.Without enough iodine, the thyroid cells and the thyroid gland become enlarged.
  17. Describe the way in which minerals may be lost.
    Processing - refining • Cooking • Storage • Freezing • Blanching • Re-heating
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