Clinicals - Head

  1. Rupture of the middle meningeal artery
  2. Untreated middle meningeal artery hemorrhage
  3. Purple patches; develop as a result of extravasation of blood into subcutaneous tissue and skin of eyelids and surrounding areas
  4. Is produced when the internal carotid artery is tornĀ 
    Arteriovenous fistula
  5. Eyeball protrudes when arterial blood rushes into the cavernous sinus, enlarging it and forcing retrograde blood into the ophthalmic veins
  6. Protruding eyeball pulsates in synchrony with radial pulse
    Pulsating exophthalmos
  7. Blood from torn branches of a middle meningeal artery collects btwn external periosteal layer of dura & calvaria; happens after a hard blow to the head; brief concussion, lucid interval, drowsiness, & coma; brain is compressed as blood mass increases, necessitating evacuation of the blood and occlusion of the bleeding vessels
    Extradural/epidural hematoma
  8. Caused by extravasated blood that splits open the dural border cell layer; blood creates a space at the dura-arachnoid junction; usually follows a blow to the head that jerks the brain inside the cranium and injures it; trauma may be trivial/forgotten, but hematoma may develop over weeks; commonly results from tearing of a superior cerebral vein bridging in as it enters the superior sagittal sinus
    Dural border/subdural hematoma
  9. Extravasation (escape) of arterial blood into subarachnoid space; result from rupture of a saccular aneurysm sac-like dilation on an artery); results in meningeal irritation, a severe headache, stiff neck, and loss of consciousness
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  10. Cerebral bruising; results from brain trauma in which pia is stripped from injured surface of the brain and may be torn, allowing blood to enter subarachnoid space; bruising results from sudden impact of moving brain against stationary cranium or from suddenly moving cranium against stationary brain; may result in extended loss of consciousness
    Cerebral contusion
  11. Associated with depressed cranial fractures or gunshot wounds; result in rupture of blood vessels and bleeding into the brain and subarachnoid space, causing increased intracranial pressure and cerebral compression
    Cerebral lacerations
  12. Increase in brain volume resulting from increase in water and sodium content
    Brain edema
  13. Enlargement of head and excess CSF in ventricles due to overproduction of CSF, obstruction of its flow, or interference with its absorption; dilates the ventricles, thins the brain, and in infants, separates the bones of the calvaria because the sutures and fontanelles are still open
  14. Leakage of CSF from external acoustic meatus due to fractures in the floor of the middle cranial fossa if the meninges superior to the middle ear are torn and the tympanic membrane (eardrum) is ruptured
    CSF otorrhea
  15. Leakage of CSF through nose due to fractures in the floor of the anterior cranial fossa--cribiform plate of ethmoid
    CSF rhinorrhea
  16. Increased risk in cases of CSF otorrhea and CSF rhinorrhea because infection could spread to meninges from ear or nose
  17. Sudden neurological deficits related to impaired cerebral blood flow; most common causes: cerebral embolism, cerebral thrombosis, cerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Ischemic stroke
  18. Follows rupture of an artery or a saccular aneurysm (a sac-like dilation on a weak part of the arterial wall)
    Hemorrhagic stroke
  19. Deficient blood supply
  20. Sudden sharp pain
  21. Injury to facial nerve (CN VII) produces paralysis of some/all facial muscles on the affected side; Affected areas sag and facial expression is distorted; inferior eyelid falls away from surface of eyeball, lacrimal fluid is not spread over cornea, food can accumulate in oral vestibule during chewing, drooping of corner of mouth, food and saliva dribbling out side of mouth
    Bell palsy
Card Set
Clinicals - Head
Clinical cases related to the head.