Study Cards For Last HISTORY EXAM

  1. apartheid
    A Movement in South Africa that separated Blacks from Whites. Blacks had small freedom. Whites dominated over Blacks.
  2. African National Congress
    A Group that opposed apartheid. Lead by Nelson Mandela.
  3. Nelson Mandela:
    Leader of the African National Congress. Imprisoned for opposing South African government. Ended apartheid. President from 1994-1999. died December 5th 2013.
  4. F.W. de Klerk
    President of South Africa: Ended apartheid. Worked on reforms to achieve equal voting rights for both blacks and whites in South Africa.
  5. Soweto Uprising:
    An Uprising of School students from Sowetan schools in South Africa against apartheid: 600 protesters died during this uprising.
  6. One-party system:
    Single political party that controls the government. Dictators ruled many nations by using this system. Held elections were controlled by bribes or death threats.
  7. patronage:
    giving loyal followers of the one-party system well paid positions in the government.
  8. Rwanda:
    1990s- tribal violence  between Hutu v. Tutsi. Hutu led gov’t - massacre of 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu
  9. Darfur/Sudan Civil War:
    A Civil War between two different one party systems. Muslim North v. Southern tribal groups who were Christians. estimated 2 million dead. considered genocide.
  10. Saddam Hussein
    Dictator of Iraq: Took control in 1979: Built largest army in middle east: Capital Babylon: built up huge wealth for himself:
  11. desertification:
    the spread of desert like conditions. Continuous cycles of drought and famine.
  12. Famine:
    Extreme food shortage
  13. Epidemic:
    A widespread of disease in a country or continent. (Ex. the Black Death was an Epidemic.)
  14. Negritude movement:
    A movement that preserved African culture from 1930s - rejected Europeans, embraced African heritage Some used Swahili - novels, poetry
  15. David Ben Gurion:
    First Prime Minister of the new Israel. Created the new government on may 14th, 1948.
  16. Gamal Nasser:
    Took over Egypt in 1952 with a military coup: One Party gov't: Improved economy, industrialized: Nonalignment - aid from US and USSR:
  17. Suez Crisis:
    When Nasser did not receive funding for the Aswan Dam he took Suez by force. Britain, France and Israel defeated him: US - made them give it to him to avoid a conflict with the USSR: Hero of the Arabs:
  18. Pan Arabism:
    Arab unity against Jews, Christians, US etc... Had limited success.
  19. OPEC:
    A strategic importance in world politics. OPEC is a oil producing coalition of nations
  20. Six Day War
    In 1967 Egypt ordered the United Nations to remove all of it's troops from Gaza, Sinai: Egyptian troops moved into Sinai: Israel attacked - took out air force in Egypt, Syria and Jordan: War won in 6 days.
  21. Yom Kippur War:
    1973: highest Holy Day: Egyptian-retaliation attack: Golda Meir - Israeli Prime Minister: U.S. supported Israel: Israel - pushed back Egypt and Syria:
  22. Golda Meir:
    Prime Minister of Israel during the Yom Kippur War.
  23. Anwar Sadat:
    President of Egypt assassinated in 1981 by own military officer:
  24. Menachem Begin:
    Israeli politician: founder of Likud: Before Israel leader of the Zionist militant group:
  25. Arab Spring:
    Widespread protests in Middle East and North Africa: Began in Tunisia Dec 2010-spread by internet: Affected almost every Muslim country - more rights, participation in government: Overthrew gov't in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya & Yemen: Many nations still unstable:
  26. Camp David Accords:
    A series of treaties signed by Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin: These treaties established peace between Egypt and Israel:
  27. intifada:
    Palestinian resentment of Israeli occupation boiled into a rebellion:
  28. Yasser Arafat:
    Leader of PLO: Signed Oslo Accords: Died in 2004:
  29. Ayatollah Khomeini:
    Iranian religious leader and politician: Leader of 1979 Iranian Revolution: Overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi:
  30. Iranian Revolution:
    Revolution ousted shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi - too Western, Iran more industrialized: Shia Muslims led by Ayatollah Khomeini - took gov't: A direct descendant of Mohammed: Established sharia law - based on Koran:
  31. sharia law:
    Rules and regulations founded by Islamic governments. These rules were based or the Koran, and were followed by almost all Muslims. Rules consisted of women being completely hidden by clothes: Not allowed in public without male relative or husband.
  32. Theocracy:
    Form of government: Not actual elected government: Religious leaders giving orders to elected government:
  33. Persian Gulf War:
    1990: invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein over territory dispute: Coalition of gov't - U.S. Saudi Arabia, other Arab nations opposed Hussein: 1991 - Desert Storm - quick end to war: Hussein still in power of Iraq:
  34. Iraq War:
    • 2003-2010:
    • REASONS:
    • Iraq gave aid to terrorists:
    • Chemical weapons against own people:
    • Refused weapon inspection by the UN:
    • Feared Hussein had WMDs could use or give to terrorists:

    • Quick overthrow of government:
    • Hussein in hiding; executed in 2006:
    • Never found WMDs:
    • Civil War - insurgents against stable Iraq; different Muslim factions Free elections 2005:
    • Current Prime Minister Nouri al Malaki:
    • Still has terrorist attacks:
  35. Liberation Theology:
    Mixture of Catholicism and Marxism believes:
  36. Fidel Castro/Raul Castro:
    Relatives who ruled/rule Cuba: Fidel led revolution against U.S.: Retired Raul took over: Raul more radical than Fidel:
  37. Che Guevara:
    Argentine Marxist revolutionary: physician: guerrilla leader: Major figure in Cuban Revolution: Helped lead it:
  38. Sandinistas:
    1979: Somoza forced to flee: Revolutionary group that took over capital: Rule as junta, group of leaders who rule jointly: Launched economic, social reforms: Allowed political opposition: Contras - US supported opposition guerilla group against Marxist Sandinistas:
  39. Junta:
    Group or leaders ruling as a government jointly over a country:
  40. Contras:
    US supported opposition guerilla group against Marxist Sandinistas:
  41. Juan Peron/Eva Peron:
    Married couple who ruled Argentina: Juan Dictator from 1943-1955: Eva populist wife; died of cancer at 33:
  42. Populist:
    Supporter of rights for the common people:
  43. hyperinflation:
    extremely high inflation levels:
  44. Manuel Noriega (Panama):
    military dictator and drug lord-ousted in 1989 serving time in prison:
  45. Augusto Pinochet (Chile):
    dictator that overthrew Salvador Allende, a Socialist Now democratic system:
  46. Hugo Chavez (Venezuela):
    Marxist leader: controlled economy - put in shambles: Close ties to Cuba, Castro: Today-Marxist leader: Economic unrest; hunger: Protests in the street:
  47. Vicenti Fox (Mexico):
    elected in 2000: Not in the PIR: worked well with US, opposed harsh treatment of immigrants:
  48. Enrique Nieto (Mexico):
    Current President of Mexico: PRI, reformer: Granted US factories in Mexico:
  49. NAFTA:
    North America Free Trade Association
  50. Falkland War:
    War between Argentina and Britain: Over Falkland islands: Argentina attempted to gain control over islands and remove British control: Operation failed. Britain still in control:
  51. Violeta Chamorro:
    elected President in 1990: Peaceful transfer of power from Sandinistas:
  52. Daniel Ortega:
    Sandinista: Current President of Nicaragua:
  53. Globalization:
    process in which trade and culture link together countries around the world: Cultural Mix:
  54. interdependence:
    relationship among countries in which they depend on one another for resources, goods and services:
  55. multinational corporation:
    large companies that operate in multiple countries:
  56. outsourcing:
    companies send work elsewhere to cut costs and/or increase production: China makes Americas electronics is an example of outsourcing:
  57. free trade:
    tries to guarantee that a fair price is paid to workers & farmer in developing countries:
  58. cultural diffusion:
    mixture of multiple different countries all into one society or economy:
Card Set
Study Cards For Last HISTORY EXAM
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