Psychology Exam #4

  1. Emotion
    A response of the whole organism involving, (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, & (3) conscious experience
  2. Effects Of Poverty
    In most countries, & especially in poor countries, individuals with lots of money are typically happier than those who struggle to afford life's basic needs - they also often enjoy better health

    People in rich countries also experience greater well-being than those in poor countries
  3. General Adaptation Syndrome
    Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in 3 phases:  (1) alarm, (2) resistance, & (3) exhaustion
  4. Sympathetic Nervous System
    Arousing division of the autonomic nervous system

    Pupils dilate, salivation decreases, skin perspires, respiration increases, heart accelerates, digestion is inhibited, adrenal glands secrete stress hormones, immune system functioning is reduced
  5. Adaptation Level Phenomenon
    Our tendency to form judgements (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
  6. Stress Appraisal
    The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging

    Stressful event -> threat -> stressed to distraction

    Stressful even -> challenge -> aroused, focused
  7. Relative Deprivation
    The perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
  8. Type A & B Personalities
    Type A = Competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, & anger-prone people

    Type B = Easygoing, relaxed people
  9. Lymphocytes
    B Lymphocytes = WBC's that form in bone marrow & release antibodies that fight bacterial infections

    T Lymphocytes = WBC's that form in the thymus & other lymphatic tissue & attack cancer cells, viruses, & foreign substances

    Macrophage = Identifies, pursues, & ingests harmful invaders & worn-out cells

    Natural Killer Cells = Pursue diseased cells (such as those infected by viruses or cancer)
  10. Problem-Focused & Emotion-Focused Coping
    Problem-Focused = Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor

    Emotion-Focused = Attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor & attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
  11. Effects Of Religion On Stress
    Religiously active people tend to live longer than those who are not religiously active
  12. Unconditional Positive Regard
    According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
  13. Personality
    An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, & acting
  14. Unconscious
    A reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, & memories.  According to contemporary psychologists, in formation processing of which we are unaware
  15. Free Association
    A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes & says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
  16. Id
    A reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual & aggressive drives.  The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
  17. Ego
    The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, supergo, & reality.  The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
  18. Superego
    The part of personality that represents internalized ideals & provides standards for judgement (the conscience) & for future aspirations
  19. Erogenous Zones
    Pleasure sensitive areas of the body
  20. Oedipus Complex
    A body's sexual desires towards his mother & feelings of jealousy & hatred for the rival father
  21. Repression
    The basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, & memories from consciousness
  22. Fixation
    The process by which it's a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
  23. Collective Unconscious
    Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
  24. Traits
    A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel & act, as assessed by self-report inventories & peer reports
  25. MMPI
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; most widely researched & clinically used of all personality tests; originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is used for many other screening purposes
  26. Empirically Derived
    A test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items & then selecting those that discriminate between groups
  27. Big 5
    5 trait factors that derive your personality:  conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openess, extraversion
  28. Reciprocal Determinism
    The interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, & environment
  29. Locus Of Control
    External = the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control over our environment

    Internal = the perception that you control your own fate
  30. Learned Helplessness
    The hopelessness & passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
  31. Psychological Disorder
    Deviant, distressful, & dysfuntional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
  32. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of 3 key symptoms:  extreme inattention, hyperactivity, & impulsivity
  33. Medical Model
    The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, & in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital

    A mental illness needs to be diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms & treated through therapy, which may include time in a psychiatric hospital
  34. DSM-IV-TR
    The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, with an updated "text revision"; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
  35. Labeling
    Labels are at best arbitrary and at worst value judgements masquerading as science; once we label a person, we view that person differently; labels create preconceptions that guide our perceptions and our interpretations
  36. Anxiety Disorders
    Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
  37. Panic Attacks
    Unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experience terror & accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
  38. Phobia
    An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear & avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation
  39. Social Phobia
    Shyness taken to an extreme; people have an intense fear of being scrutinized by others, avoid parties - or will sweat or tremble when doing so
  40. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
  41. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawals, jump anxiety, and/or insomnia that linger for 4 weeks or more after a traumatic experience
  42. Dissociative Disorder
    Disorder in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, & feelings
  43. Major Depressive Disorder
    A mood disorder in which a person experiences 2 or more weeks of significantly depressed moods or diminished interest or pleasure in most activities, along with at least 4 other symptoms
  44. Mania
    A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
  45. Bi-Polar Disorder
    A mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness & lethargy of depression & the overexcited state of mania
  46. Schizophrenia
    A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized & delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, & inappropriate emotions & behaviors
  47. Hallucinations & Delusions
    Hallucinations = Sensory experiences without sensory stimulations

    Delusions = False beliefs, often persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
  48. Catatonia
    Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrot-like repeating of another's speech or movements
  49. Personality Disorders
    Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible & enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
  50. Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
    Flat Affect = Emotionless state

    Anhedonia = loss of the capacity to experience pleasure subjectively

    Avolition = the inability to start, persist in, and carry through any goal-directed activity to its logical conclusion

    Social Isolation

    Diminished Self Care
  51. Treatments For Schizophrenia
    Antipsychotic medication
  52. Hindsight Bias
    Tendency to believe you would have forseen an outcome
  53. Overconfidence
    Humans tend to think they know more than they do
  54. Hypothesis
    Testable prediction
  55. Experiment
    Enables researchers to isolate the effects of one or more factors by manipulating the factors of interest & holding constant other factors
  56. Parts Of A Neuron
    Cell body, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath, terminal branches of axon
  57. Neurotransmitters
    Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons

    Dopamine:  oversupply = schizophrenia; undersupply = tremors, decreased mobility in Parkinson's disease

    Serotonin:  undersupply = depression

    Norepinephrine:  undersupply = can depress mood

    Acetylcholine:  undersupply = Alzheimer's disease

    Gaba:  undersupply = seizures, tremors, insomnia

    Glutamate:  oversupply = can overstimulate brain producing migraines or seizures
  58. Hormones
    The body's "slow" chemical communicators

    Thyroid = affects metabolism

    Parathyroid = helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood

    Hypothalamus = brain region controlling the pituitary gland

    Adrenal Glands = inner part helps trigger the "fight-or-flight+ response

    Pancreas = regulates the level of sugar in the blood

    Testes/Ovaries = secretes male/female sex hormones
  59. Circadian Rhythm
    Biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle
  60. Environment
    Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people & things around us
  61. Collectivist/Individualistic Cultures
    Collectivist = Giving priority to the goals of one's group & defining one's identity accordingly; self = interdependent; life task = maintain connections, fit in, perform role; what matters = us; coping method = accommodate to reality; morality = defined by social networks; relationships = few, close; attributing behavior = reflects social norms & roles

    Individualist = giving priority to one's own goals over group goals & defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group id's; self = independent; life task = discover & express one's won uniqueness; what matters = me; coping method = change reality; morality = defined by individuals; relationships = many, often temporary; attributing behavior = reflect's one's personality & attitudes
  62. Conservation
    The principle that properties such as mass, volume, & number remains the same despite changes in the forms of objects
  63. Teratogens
    Agents, such as chemicals & viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development & cause harm
  64. Learning
    The process of acquiring new & relatively enduring information or behaviors; by learning, we are able to adapt to our environments
  65. Classical Conditioning
    A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli & anticipate events; ex = Pvalov's dog
  66. Memory
    The persistence of learning over time through the storage & retrieval of information
  67. Cognition
    The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, & communicating
  68. Achievement Tests
    Tests designed to assess what a person has learned
  69. Aptitude Tests
    Tests designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
  70. Motivation
    A need or desire that energizes & directs behavior
  71. Drive
    An aroused, motivated state
Card Set
Psychology Exam #4
Psychology Exam #4