Summer Session II; Anatomy; Lecture 17; Joints of the lower limb

  1. List 4 char. of the Sacroiliac joint
    • -Synovial joint
    • -Articulation between the sacrum and ilium
    • -both surfaces contain iregular shapes that help bones interlock
    • -strong joint capsule with the strongest ligaments in the body
  2. List 6 ligaments of the SI joint
    • -Interosseous sacroiliac ligament
    • -posterior sacroiliac ligament
    • -anterior sacroiliac ligament
    • -iliolumbar ligament
    • -sacrotuberous ligament
    • -sacrospinous ligament
  3. explain significance of all ligaments of the SI joint
    • Interosseous Sacroiliac ligaments -massive, strong ligaments that unite the sacral and iliac tuberosities.
    • • Posterior Sacroiliac ligaments -composed of short and long fibers that connect the sacrum and ilium posteriorly. It blends with the sacrotuberous ligament.
    • • Anterior Sacroiliac ligaments -transverse fibers that support the anterior and inferior portion of the sacroiliac joint. Ligaments
    • • Iliolumbar ligament -accessory ligament of the sacroiliac joint. It supports the L5-S 1 joint.
    • • Sacrotuberous ligament -helps support the sacroiliac joint by preventing upward movement (nutation) of the sacrum • Sacrospinous ligament --helps support the sacroiliac joint by preventing upward movement (nutation) of the sacrum
  4. List 3 parts of the Hip joint
    acetabulum, femur and capsule
  5. list 2 char of the hip joint
    • -synovial joint (ball and socket)
    • -articulation of the head of the ffumur and the acetabulum of the os coxae
  6. what deepens the acetabulum?
    • acetabular labrum
    • Image Upload 2
  7. What does the acetabulular labrum attach to? (2)
    • -bony rim
    • -transverse acetabular ligament (spans the acetabular notch createing the acetabular foramen) Image Upload 4
  8. What is the purpose for the acetabular foramen?
    Provide passage of blood vessels and nerves to the joint cavity
  9. What is the the purpose of the ligamentum teres femoris? what is the attachment of this with the small depression called?
    attach the femur to the transverse acetabular ligament and the acetabular labrum; fovea capitisImage Upload 6
  10. Describe the capusule of the hip joint (2)
    • -Forms a cylindrical sleeve about the head and neck of the femur
    • -has 4 thickenings that help to stregthen it;
    • -iliofemoral ligament
    • -ishiofemoral ligament
    • -pubofemoral ligament
    • -zona obicularis
  11. describe the iliofemoral ligament. When is it tight? What does it help prevent
    • -extends from the AIIS and acetabular rim to the intertrochanteric line;
    • it is tight in extension of the thigh;
    • prevents hyperextension of the hip in standing
    • Image Upload 8
  12. Describe the ischiofemoral ligament. What does it prevent?
    • -extends from the acetabulum posteriorly and spirals superiorlaterally to the neck of femur and greater trochanter.
    • -helps prevent hyperextension
    • Image Upload 10
  13. describe the pubofemoral ligament. When is it "taut"? what does it prevent?
    • -extends from the pubic part of the acetabulum and superior ramus of the intertrochanteric line;
    • tuat in extension;
    • -prevents excessive abduction of thigh
    • Image Upload 12
  14. describe the zona orbicularis
    • capusular fibers that encircle the neck of the femur
    • Image Upload 14
  15. what are the two extension of the hip joint synovial capusle that serve as bursae?
    • Anteriorly- bursa under the tendon of the iliopsoas
    • Posteriorly- bursa for the tendon of obturator externus muscle (pic showed on posterior side of body)
    • Image Upload 16
    • Image Upload 18
  16. list the blood supply to the hip joint; (3)
    List the innervation to the hip joint; (4)
    Medial and lateral cirumflex arteries, and artery to the head of the femur

    • Nerve;
    • femoral nerve
    • obturator nerve
    • superior gluteal nerve
    • nerve to quadraturs femoris
  17. The knee joint is obviously a synovial joint of the hinge variety, but how would you describe the amount of rotation, small or large?
    small rotation. Duh!
  18. How many external ligaments (extracapsular ligaments) are there on the knee joint? List them.
    • 5
    • Patellar ligament
    • fibular collateral ligament or lcl
    • tibial collateral ligament or mcl
    • arcuate ligament
    • oblique popliteal ligament
  19. Describe the patellar ligament. What is its function?
    • A continuation of the quadrecipects tendon;
    • Strengthens the anterior capsue of the knee
    • Image Upload 20
  20. What are the attachments of the LCL? Describe the LCL.
    • extends from the lateral epicodyle of the femur to the lateral surface of the head of the fibula.
    • -It is partialy fused with the capusle on the superior end. Strengthens lateral capsule
  21. Describe the attachements of the Tibial collateral ligament; Now describe the ligament.
    • extends from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial surface of the tibia.
    • -Strengthens fibrous capusle and is completely intrinsic.

    Image Upload 22
  22. Name two Y shaped ligaments.
    Iliofemoral ligament of the hip joint and the Arcuate ligament of the knee joint
  23. What strengthens the posterior capsule of the knee joint: (2)
    • Arcuate ligament (y-shaped)
    • Oblique popliteal ligament ( also is part of the floor of the popliteal fossa *remember PCO- Patellar surface of the femur, Capsule of the knee joint and Oblique popliteal ligament)
    • Image Upload 24
  24. Which ligament is an expansion of the tendon of the semimembranous muscle?
    • Oblique popliteal ligament!
    • Image Upload 26
  25. The capusle of the knee joint creates multiple bursae. How many are there? Describe each one.
    • (6)
    • Suprapatellar- extension of synovial capusule between the femur and quadriceps tendon.
    • Popliteus- extension of synovial capusle between the popliteus and lateral condyle of the tibia.
    • Gastrocnemius- exstension of synovial capusule between the medial head of gastroc and femur.
    • Subcutaneuous prepatellar- b/w skin and patella
    • Subcutanuous infrapatellar- b/w skin and tibial tuberosity
    • Deep infrapatellar- b/w patellar ligament and tibia.
    • Image Upload 28
  26. Name two intra capsular ligaments of the knee joint. What does each prevent?
    • Anterior cruciate Ligament-prevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia and hyperextension of the knee joint.
    • Posterior cruciate ligament- prevents anterior displacement of the femur on the tibia or posterior displacement of the tibia.
  27. Describe the attachments of the ACL.
    Arises from the anterior intercondyler area of the tibia and extends, superiorly/posteriorly/laterally to attach to the posterior part of the medial side of the lateral condyle of the femur.
  28. Which intra capsular ligament is the "main stablizer of the flexed knee during gait"
    Posterior Cruciate ligament
  29. Describe the attachments of the PCL. What is its function?
    • Arises from the posterior aspect of the intercondyler area of the tibia and passes anteriorlly and superiorly on the medial side of the ACL to the anterior part of the lateral side of the medial condyle of the femur.
    • -Main stablizer of the flexed knee during gait

    Image Upload 30
  30. What are menisci? Function? List them. What is sometimes present anteriorly and joins the two menisci?
    • - two fibrocartilaginous discs
    • -deepens the shallow articular fossa of the tibia
    • -medial meniscus (c shaped) and lateral meniscus (o shaped)
    • -transverse meniscal ligament
  31. List 2 char. of the medial meniscus. What attaches it to the tibia?
    • -c shaped
    • -firmly attached to the tibial collateral ligament (or MCL)
    • -attached along the periphery of the tibial condyle by coronary ligaments
    • Image Upload 32
  32. What seperates the lateral meniscus from the fibular collateral ligament? Shape of Lateral meniscus? What attaches it to the tibia? What is the posterior meniscofemoral ligament?
    • The tendon of the popliteas muscle;
    • "O shape";
    • coronary ligaments;
    • strong tendinous extension of the lateral mensiucs that attaches to the PCL and medial condyle of the femur.
    • Image Upload 34
  33. What is another name for the posterior meniscofemoral ligament?
    What about the anterior meniscofemoral ligament?
    • Ligament of Wrisberg; (this ligament is more common)
    • Ligament of humphrey
  34. What is the blood supply of the knee joint? What is the innervation? (4)
    • -genicular branches
    • innervation-
    • obturator n
    • femoral n.
    • tibial n.
    • common peroneal n.
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Summer Session II; Anatomy; Lecture 17; Joints of the lower limb
Summer Session II; Anatomy; Lecture 17; Joints of the lower limb