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  1. Human capital
    the knowledge, skills, and capabilities of indv that have economic value to an org


    employees own their own human capital
  2. Total Quality Improvements (TQM)
    Means org use to modify the way they operate in order to be more successful
  3. Six Sigma quality
    A set of principles and practices whose core ideas include understanding customer needs, doing things right the first time, and striving for continuous improvement
  4. Reengineering
    Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed.
  5. Downsizing
    Planned elimination of jobs
  6. Outsourcing
    Contracting outside the org to have work done that formerly was done by internal employees.
  7. Change management
    A systematic way of bringing about and managing both organizational changes and changes on the indv level
  8. Reactive changes
    change that occurs after external forces have already affected performance
  9. Proactive changes
    Change initiated to take adv of targeted opportunities
  10. Collaborative software
    software that allows workers to interface and share info with one another electronically
  11. Knowledge workers
    workers whose responsibilities extend beyond the physical execution of work to include planning, decision making, and problem solving
  12. Human resources information system (HRIS)
    A comp system that provides current and accurate data for purposes of control and decision making

    lowers adm costs, increases productivity, speeds up response times, improves decision making, and tracks a comp talent
  13. Furloughing
    a situation in which an org asks or requires employees to take time off for either no pay or reduced pay

    alt to downsizing
  14. Employee leasing
    dismissing employees who are then hired by a leasing comp and contracting with that comp to lease back employees
  15. Employment at will relationship
    when an employee agrees to work for an employer for an unspecified period of time

    the right of an employer to fire an employee wout giving a reason and the right of an employee to quit when they choose
  16. WARN Act
    requires org with more than 100 employees to give employees and their communities sixty days notice of any closure or layoff affecting fifty or more full-time employees
  17. Disciplinary procedures
    • setting an org’s rules
    • documenting misconduct
    • investigative interview
    • progressive discipline
    • positive discipline
    • discharging employee
    • due process
  18. Equal employment opportunity (EEO)
    the treatment of inv in all aspects of employment- hiring, promo, training etc.- in a fair and unbiased manner
  19. Protected classes
    inv of a minority race, women, older people, and those with disabilities who are covered by federal laws on equal employment opportunity
  20. Equal Pay Act of 1963
    Requires all employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act and others to provide equal work, regardless of sex
  21. Fair employment practices (FEPs)
    State and local laws governing equal employment opportunity that are often more comprehensive than federal laws and apply to small employers

    Extend discrimination laws to employers with one or more workers
  22. Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
    A procedural doc published in the Federal Register to help employers comply with federal regulations vs discriminatory actions
  23. Adverse impact
    the rejection of a significantly higher percentage of a protected class for employment, placement, or promo when compared with the successful, non protected class

    Four-fifths rule
  24. Disparate treatment
    protected class members receive unequal treatment or are evaluated by diff standards
  25. Job analysis
    the process of obtaining info about jobs by determining their duties, task, or activities
  26. Methods for gathering and analyzing information for job analysis
    • functional job analysis
    • the position analysis system
    • the critical incident method
    • a task inventory analysis
    • competency-based job analysis
  27. Job description
    a statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job to be performed
  28. Parts of job description
    • job title
    • job identification
    • job specifications
  29. Problems with job descriptions
    • if poorly written (vague terms), then they provide little guidance
    • not updated when job duties and specifications change
    • may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success
    • limit the scope of activities/reduce flexibility
  30. Employee profile
    a profile of a worker developed by studying an org’s top performers in order to recruit similar types of people
  31. Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO)
    the practice of outsourcing an org’s recruiting function to an outside firm
  32. Internal labor market
    labor markets in which workers are hired into entry level jobs and higher levels are filled within
  33. Branding
    a comp’s efforts to help existing and prospective workers understand why it is a desirable place to work
  34. 9-box grid
    a comparative diagram that includes appraisal and assessment data to allow managers to easily see an employee’s actual and potential performance
  35. Nepotism
    a preference for hiring relatives of current employees
  36. Realistic job preview (RJP)
    informing applicants about all aspects of the job (desirable and undesirable facts)
  37. Yield ratio
    the % of applicants from a recruitment source that make it to the next stage of the selection process
  38. Applicant tracking system (ATS)
    app that recruiters use to post job openings, screen resumes, contact potential candidates, and track the time and costs related to hiring people
  39. Job progressions
    the hierarchy of jobs a new employee might experience
  40. Career paths
    lines of advancement in an occupational field within an org
  41. Promotion
    change of assignment to a job at a higher level in the org
  42. Outplacement services
    services that help terminated employees find a new job
  43. Sabbatical
    extended time where an employee leave an org to pursue other activities and later returns to the job
  44. Executive order 11246
    Federal agencies and govt contractors with contracts of $10,000 or more

    Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in all employment practices

    Govt contractors or subcontractors w 50 or more employees with contracts in excess of $50,000 develop affirmative action plans
  45. Why is it unique about Executive Order 11246 compared to other executive orders?
    It is unique because covered organizations with $50,000 or more in contracts MUST develop an affirmative action to remedy diversity issues.

    Other Executive orders are just extended coverage of existing laws.

    This requirement in EO 11246 is not covered in Title VII.
  46. Enforcement of Executive Order 11246
    Office of Federal Contracts Compliance Program (OFCCP)(DOL.GOV).
  47. Parts of job description: job title
    • indication of the duties
    • level in the org hierarchy
  48. Parts of job description: job identification
    • departamental location of job
    • the person whom the employee reports to
    • the date of that the job description was last revised
    • payroll/code number
    • number of employees performing the job
    • number of employees in the dept where the job is located
    • code assigned to the job by ONET
    • statement of the job
  49. Parts of job description: job specifications
    • specific knowledge, skills, and abilities of a person who is to perform a job needs
    • physical demands
    • conditions of the physical work environment/hazards
    • interpersonal skills
  50. Bona Fide Occupational qualification (BFOQ)
    • Employers can give preference to hiring on the basis of gender, national origin, and religion when it is reasonably necessary for the normal operation of the enterprise.
    • Made to change cultures, not perpetuate them
  51. Bona Fide (real/genuine) Seniority Systems
    Legal, even if they cause or perpetuate disparate impact (USA v. Teamsters)
  52. Bona Fide Occupational qualification (BFOQ) NO!
    • Stereotypes
    • Customer preference
    • Co worker preference
    • Economic reasons
  53. Bona Fide Occupational qualification (BFOQ) MAYBE!
    • Safety
    • Moral reasons
    • Authenticity
  54. Religious preference
    • Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based on religion
    • Employers needs to make a reasonable accommodation
    • holidays
    • personal appearance
    • religious conduct on the job
  55. TWA v. Hardison
    Employers had only to bear a minimum cost to show accommodation for religious purposes
  56. Age discrimination Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 as amended
    • Public/private sector org with 20 or more employees
    • It's unlawful to discriminate against an otherwise qualified indv age 40 or older with respect to age with respect to any employment practice
    • Enforcement by the EEOC
    • 97% of cases are filed under disparate treatment.
    • All employers have to do is provide non discriminatory evidence
    • Exceptions to the law are permitted when age is a bona fide occupational qualification
  57. Older Workers Benefit Protection Act of 1990
    • Prohibits employers from denying benefits to older employees except in limited circumstances
    • Allows employers to ask older employees to waive their legal rights under the ADEA in exchange for compensation
  58. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) as amended
    • Public/private employers with 15 or more employees
    • It is unlawful to discriminate against an otherwise qualified individual with respect to disability with respect to any employment practice
    • Employers must accommodate the needs of the disabled up to the point of undue hardship- reasonable accommodation/undue hardship based upon economic resources, number of employees, size of facility,feasibility
    • Determined on a case by case basis
    • Large org were expected to do more than small org
    • Enforcement by the EEOC
  59. Definition of Disability
    Any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity (ADA Amendment of 2008)- without any consideration whether or not the disability can be corrected via medical measures
  60. Once common practices no longer allowed under the ADA
    • Pre-job offer inquiries regarding disabilities are illegal
    • Pre-job offer medical exams are illegal
    • Information about a disability must be maintained in a file separate from an employee's personnel file and can only be communicated to an individual who has the right to know
  61. PAQ- Position Analysis Questionnaire
    • Not recommended to require employees to write about their job. Sometimes, only 1 person holds the job, and they may not want to. Under employment-at-will law, and in the absence of a union membership, you can require it.
    • The employee might not produce good information
  62. KSAOC’s
    Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and other characteristics required for successful performance.
  63. What is the O*Net?
    Occupational Information Network.

    A new company can use it before doing a full-scale job analysis. They would still have to do a job analysis, because it will not exactly match the job in their organization.
  64. The four parts of a job description are:
    • I: Identification section
    • II: Job Summary Statement
    • III: Essential Job Functions
    • IV: Job specification-KSAOCs.
  65. Employee Recruitment
    those activities that impact the quality and quantity of the applicant pool and impacts the likelihood a candidate will accept a job offer
  66. Where does recruitment start?
    After identifying a job opening, the first step of recruitment is to very carefully articulate the characteristics of the individual being sought—in order to get desired KSAOCs as described in job description
  67. Three questions to address in developing effective recruitment policy:
    • 1. Who to recruit? Internal candidates(promotion within) or external candidates?
    • 2. What information to communicate?
    • 3. How to recruit?
  68. Advantages of promotion from within (internal)
    • A. Reward for excellent performance that can motivate
    • B. Relatively cost effective
    • C. Organizations know more about internal candidates then is learned about external candidates via normal selection processes.
    • D. Internal candidates have a more realistic view of the job or the org than external candidates
    • E. One promotion can lead to a chain of promotions
  69. Disadvantages for promotion from within
    • A. Lack of new ideas/innovation brought in by outsiders
    • B. Conflict among those passed over for promotion
    • C. More difficult to achieve affirmative action goals/diversity
  70. Advantages of external promotion
    • A. New ideas/innovation brought in by outsiders
    • B. Less conflict than within promotion
    • C. Easier to achieve affirmative action goals/diversity
  71. Disadvantages of external promotion
    • A. It can demotivate internal employees
    • B. Not cost effective
    • C. Organizations know little about external candidates
    • D. External candidates do not have a realistic view of the job or the org
    • E. It does not lead to a chain of promotions
  72. What information to communicate?
    • The more information the better
    • Communicate information that is complete, accurate, realistic, and specific (CARS)
  73. Why complete communication?
    We want to attract a qualified pool of applicants
  74. Why realistic communication?
    • The Theory of Met Expectations (realism hypothesis)
    • Realistic job previews RTP's
  75. How to recruit?
    • Employee referral
    • Internet
  76. Advantages of employee referrals
    • 1. Employees refer quality candidates-applicant pools are strong.
    • 2. Relatively cost effective (even with referral bonuses).
    • 3. Employees tend to provide referees with effective Realistic Job Previews
  77. Disadvantages of employee referrals
    • 1. Potential lack of ethnic diversity
    • 2. Potential lack of innovation
    • 3. Nepotism
  78. Advantages of internet recruitment
    • 1. Large applicant pools
    • 2. Wide geographic distribution of job postings
    • 3. Relatively low cost, almost free on an organization’s website.
    • 4. Faster than U.S. mail and easier for candidates to respond
    • 5. Ample space to communicate accurate, complete, specific, and realistic information
  79. Disadvantages of internet recruitment
    1. Too many over-and-under qualified applicants. And too many applicants.
  80. Metrics
    Quantitative Assessment of relative effectiveness
  81. Sexual harassment
    Unwelcomed advances of a sexual nature, requests for a sexual favor, or physical or verbal abuse of a sexual nature
  82. quid pro quo harassment
    • Such is used as a condition of employment
    • Such is used  for the basis of an employment decision (promo, lay off)
    • require a power relationship
  83. hostile environment harassment
    Such creates a hostile, threatening, or intimidating work environment that adversely alters the conditions of employment
  84. Executive Order 13087
    bars discrimination vs civilian employees of the federal govt based on their sexual orientation (except military)
  85. Oncale v. Sundawner Offshore Services (1998)
    Controversial because Title VII did not include sexual orientation
  86. Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)
    • Employers are prohibited from knowingly hiring or retaining unauthorized alien on the job
    • Employers with 4 or more employees are prohibited from discriminating in hiring or termination decision on the basis of national origin or citizenship
  87. Pregnancy discrimination
    • Added as a form of gender discrimination under Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
    • Treat pregnancy as you treat other temporary disabilities
  88. Family and Medical Leave Act
    • Requires the eligible employees be granted 12 weeks unpaid leave during a twelve month period for:
    • Birth or adoption of a child
    • Care for an employee's serious illness
    • Care for the serious illness of a dependent
    • Employers can force employees to use their paid leave before using unpaid leave
    • 12 months of work experience
    • The 12 weeks do not need to be continuous
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