Ch. 11 Speech Perception

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  1. What is the stimulus for speech perception?
    phonemics: analysis of how specific sounds distinguish words
  2. What is a spectrogram?
    a 3-dimensional display that plots time on the horizontal axis, frequency on the vertical axis, and amplitude on a color or gray scale
  3. What is coarticulation?
    production of one speech sound overlapping production of the next
  4. What is variability?
    the subtle differences in the articulation of speech
  5. What is the vocal tract?
    the airway above the larynx used for the production of speech (the vocal tract includes the oral tract and nasal tract)
  6. Where is the palate?
    the structure separating the oral tract from the nasal tract
  7. where are the vocal folds?
    just above the larynx (where the vocal chords are located)
  8. Where does the larynx lead?
    to the trachea which leads to the esophagus
  9. What is the epiglottis?
    the dividing muscle between the tongue and the larynx
  10. What is the alveolar ridge?
    the bone structure directly behind the top teeth wall that forms into a ridge-like structure
  11. How is speech produced?
    through respiration (breathing), phonation (vocal chords), and articulation (vocal tract)
  12. How does speech articulation vary?
    age, sex, and emotion
  13. What is segmentation?
    the actions of some symbols running together and others going farther apart (can occur from a southern draw, accent) (understanding when one word ends and another begins)
  14. What are the special mechanisms enabling speech in humans?
    • broca's area (provides the ability to produce speech)
    • wernicke's area (provides the ability to understand speech)
  15. How is speech unique to humans?
    we have the ability to wait till later to convey a message to someone whereas animals only have immediacy in their conveyance of language (psycholinguists believe speech is unique to humans)
  16. What is aphasia?
    inability to perceive or produce speech
  17. What is semanticity?
    ability to derive meaning from speech production
  18. What is arbitrariness?
    conveying language meaning through repitition
  19. What is recursion?
    embedding pieces of a sentence inside other pieces of sentences
  20. What is categorical perception?
    listening to synthesize or categorize speech (we hear in categories) knowing when we hear one sound compared to another
  21. How many consonants are we able to produce per second?
  22. What do context effects involve?
    top-down and bottom-up processing (confusing one sound for another based on what sounds you perceive)
  23. What is the McGurk effect?
    • combining two different sounds (what you hear and what you see) to interpret a third completely different sound.
    • seeing 'gah', hearing 'bah', ¬†and interpreting 'dah'
Card Set
Ch. 11 Speech Perception
terms and concepts of speech perception
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