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  1. Most populations follow a(n) ___ growth pattern.
  2. The rate of population growth is determined by the____,_____,______,______.
    birth rate, death rate, immigration rate, and the emigration rate
  3. logistic growth begins with a period of _____growth.
  4. the ____________represents the maximum number of individuals an environment can sustain.
    carrying capacity
  5. The well-known ____-shaped  ___________ growth curve, summarizes the general growth pattern in populations
    S; logistical
  6. What is the maximum number of individuals an environment can sustain?
    carrying capacity
  7. Fires and other natural disasters are all __________ factors.
  8. Food competition, disease, and predation are __________ factors
  9. ______ dispersion is the most common pattern and characterized by clumping.
  10. ______ dispersion are results from the lack of attractive and repulsive factors.
  11. What are the three properties of population?
    size, density, and dispersion
  12. competition between populations is called ___specific competition.
  13. competition within a population is called ___specific competition.
  14. What makes up a population's niche?
    the biotic and abiotic factors that it needs in its environment
  15. What principle states that when two organisms share the same niche, one will eventually go extinct?
    competition exclusion principle
  16. _____is when an organism population adapts to use different resources.
    resource partitioning
  17. ______involves an organism being able to blend into the environment.
    Cryptic coloration
  18. _____involves an organism having flashy bright colors to indicate they are poisonous.
    Aposematic coloration
  19. ________ is when a harmless organism tries to get away from predators but mimicking other poisonous organisms.
    Batesian mimicry
  20. ______ involves multiple poisonous organisms imitating each other for protection in numbers.
    Müllerian mimicry
  21. ______ is a form of symbiosis that benefits both organisms.
  22. ______is a form of symbiosis that benefits one species and does not affect the other.
  23. ______is a form of symbiosis that benefits one species and hinders the other.
  24. __parasites live outside of the host.
  25. __parasites live inside of the host.
  26. A parasite feeds on the ___.
  27. To avoid ______, organisms may undergo character displacement or resource partitioning.
  28. ____ succession occurs when an ecosystem rebuilds after being completely destroyed where not even soil is present.
  29. ____ succession occurs when an ecosystem rebuilds after being destroyed but where soil is present.
  30. ___ are the first organisms to colonize an area and begin the process of ecological succession.
    pioneer organisms
  31. What is the correct order of ecological succession?
    lichens, grasses, shrubs, trees, climax community
  32. ____ derive energy from the sun.
  33. consumers that eat producers are called ___.
    primary consumers
  34. Consumers that eat primary consumers are called ____.
    secondary consumers
  35. Consumers that eat secondary consumers are called ___.
    tertiary consumers
  36. The different levels of producers and consumers are called ____.
    trophic levels
  37. What is the transfer of food energy up trophic levels.
    food web/ food chain
  38. In a food web, the arrows point ___ and represent _____________________.
    up; it represents where the energy travels
  39. What percentage of energy is transferred from trophic level to trophic level?
  40. What is the main purpose of the food web?
    It is used to show the flow of energy
  41. What did Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring, published in 1962, bring attention to?
    the detrimental effects of DDT
  42. What is the greater concentration of accumulated toxins in organisms at higher trophic levels?
    biological magnification
  43. Why won't most ecosystems have quaternary consumers?
    There would not be enough energy to sustain a quaternary consumer level.
  44. The ultimate source of energy in ecosystems is from____.
    the sun
  45. What is the most important species within an ecosystem that the whole ecosystem pivots on?
    keystone specie
  46. The ocean holds ___of the world’s water. Glaciers and polar ice caps hold___. Freshwater bodies and groundwater combined hold ___.
    • 97%
    • 2%
    • 1%
  47. Water that flows off the land.
  48. Water that seeps into the soil.
  49. What is water evaporation from living organisms?
  50. What is the backbone of living things?
  51. What is the order for the nitrogen cycle beginning with nitrogen gas?
    nitrogen gas  ammonium  nitrite  nitrate
  52. What are the abreviations for the following?

                 Nitrogen gas
    • N2
    • NH4+
    • NO2-
    • NO3-

  53. The atmosphere contains ___% of nitrogen.

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