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who controlled Nagasaki
1543 – 1616, first shogunate, daimyo
Three main factors influenced the rise of British rule in India
- extinction of french rule in canada by british
- revolt of the thirteen colonies of America from British rule with the assistance of
- the French
establishment of British territorial rule in the eastern part of India
1572wins significant battle, dies in 1582
- d. 1598. In power since 1586
closure of Japan 1635
portuguese colony 1557
endorsed doctrine of lapse; governor general of BEIC
banned by British 1829
Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act of 1987
beyond one's jurisdiction and local law
goals of the maccartney
- -acquire places where British traders might live to be under English jurisdiction
- -extend trade
- -relieve existing abuses in canton
- -desire in China for British products
- -diplomatic representation at Peking
- -open Japan, Vietnam and eastern islands to British commerce
- 1735 - 1796
- -no need for outside barbarians, but our silk, tea and porcelain are of absolute necessities to Europe, said trade would be limited to Macao and canton
why qianlong refused
-why would the foreigners bother with China if China was not better (reinforce the sino-centric views
culture requirement and exercise of power
century of humiliation
first opium war to 1949, est. of people's republic of china
- 1811-1863, leader of British forces in 2nd opium war, sacked old summer palace
- -defeats Tianjing and goes to Beijing
- -should the zodiac heads be given back?
second opium war
1856-1860 fought by French and English sacked old summer palace
consequences of 1st opium war
- -5 treaty ports opened in China
- -Ceded Hong Kong
what were the five treaty ports ceded after the first opium war?
what started the opium war?
lin zexu confiscated opium and burned in public spectacle; British went to war for property damage 1839
how did the British win the opium war?
- technology, Qing could only stop the big ships, cannot stop all the small ships and the alternate pathways.
- Nemesis (special boat) can go through higher and narrower rivers and is steam powered (saves energy)
- -Indians in back, bombards Chinese
what caused the 2nd opium war 1856?
- treaty terms not met
- treaty of tianjing (1858)
what was the treaty of tian jing?
not signed by Qing, Brits want Qing to pay for war, so they send 30 ambassadors, Qing has them killed.
1850-1864, 1853 proclaimed Heavenly Kingdom of Great peace (Taiping Tianguo) in Nanking
reform vs. revolution
- reform: to improve, change things from within, power holders have to buy in
- revolution: overthrow of government or social order in favor of a new system
- duck and rabbit allow paradigm shift
what are the weapons of the weak?
- humor (art, literature)
- public education: seeking to bring people to the point where they agree with you
- guerilla tactics: tearing down structures, covertly wining heart and minds of people
- political engagement
- active disengagement: refusing to do will of gov
why reforms fail
- status quo pushes back
- forces of conservatism too strong
- groundswell of opinion is not unified or large enough
why revolutions fail
- system is organized and ready to oppress moement
- people who might support the revolution support the regime, or convinced the system is better than the alternative
1814-1864 "God's heavenly son, taiping rebellion
china has 56 minority groups, although han is 91.6%
violent or resistance to established governement
causes of rebellion?
- impact of colonization (suppression of culture and traditions, overthrow or domination of local elites
- economic disparities and injustice
- exogenous factors (environmental pressures)
treaty of nanking
1842 opening of treaty port, cession of hong kong, extraterritoriality, limitation of duties
the forms that rebellions took
- local magistrate killed
- government buildings attached
- prisoners freed, who would become backbone of new fighting force
why did taiping fail?
- could not win foreign support, and given the presence of foreign forces this meant that they were fighting on two fronts
- leaders of the movement got sidetracked by pleasure and squabbling
- common property: no private property, just common bank appropriations were made for weddings, births and funerals
- land reforms: land divided into 9 categories according to quality, distributed for us not private ownership; men and women were equal. took what they needed and put the rest in the granary
- Women: women had greater rights, soldiers, no foot binding, rape, sexual slavery punishable by death
- Abstinence: opium, tobacco, alcohol strictly prohibited
- Iconoclams: due to pseudo Christian roots, happy to trash other images
- treatment of foreigners: anti-extra-territoriality
- literature: pioneers of a more colloquial style of literature
why was the British EIC successful in India?
tactics and organization, less of technology (mughals already used artillery), rapidity of fire through close formation of well drilled troops
1857 attacked his officer, on May 10, it had spread to Meerut
what were the causes of the sepoy?
- policy of lapse: imposed by Dalhousie, feeling that British rule allowed attacks on local religion and culture
- annexation of Oudh/Awdh in 1856: supposedly for misgovernance by Nawab angered Bengali Indians
- cartridges of the Enfield rifle used by the sepoys (united the Hindu and Muslim against British)
consequences of the sepoy rebellions?
- mixture conciliation and repression by the British
- mutineers were killed
- mughal empire abolished
- company rule was ended
- armies reorganized with more british officers
- declared Indian rights and territories not encroached on; Indian religions would not be interfered with.
- enmity between Brits and ind became more marked
Begum Hazrat Mahal
1820-1879 wife of Nawab Jahid Ali Shah,
- Oudh/Awdh and supported the Indian uprising
- against the British. Was herself then forced to flee to Nepal.
- how can we believe the British will not interfere with our religion?
what is liberalism?
representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy
people had its own genius and its own cultural identity which manifested itself especially in a common language history and territory
rational organization of society, with a keen attention to the poor, and such as supported planning, greater economic equality and state control of property
- place on pacific route
- safe haven for whalers and other vessels
- desire of Christian missionaries
1853, directed his vessels' guns towards a neighboring town, refused to leave until letter form President Fillmore had been accepted
1858 treaty of amity and commerse
- opening of foreign trade as ports
- ability of US citizens to trade and live in those ports
- low import-export duties
- right of missionaries
Convention of Kanagawa
1854, perry with shogunate