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  1. what the gastric juices contain
    • 1: Hydrocloric acid
    • 2: rennin
    • 3: pepsinogen which is activated bu hydrocloric acids into pepsin
  2. Action of reNNin
    coagulates milk into curds (in infants)
  3. Action of hydrochloric acid
    • Neutralizes bacteria, 
    • Activates pepsinogen (to convert into enzyme pepsin)
    • Pepsin is secreted in the inactive form of pepsinogen to prevent it from damaging the cells that make it.
  4. Action of pepsin (activated pepsinogen)
    • Coagulates proteins into PEPTONS (or peptides)
    • pepsinogen is secreted in a gastric glands in the stomach wall
  5. what intestinal juices cintain
    • 1 - pancreatic juice
    • 2 - bile
  6. what pancreatic juice contains
    • 1: trypsin - 
    • 2: lipase - 
    • 3: amylase -
  7. Action of trypsin
    converts peptones into shorter chain polipeptides
  8. Action of lipas
    converts fats into fatty acids and glycerol
  9. Action of amylase
    converts polysaccharides into saccharides
  10. Action and content of bile
    action: emulsifies fats; neutralises the acid chyme from stomach

    content: water, bile salts, bile pigments
  11. what are the intestinal juice made of:
    • to include disaccharides digestion by:
    • 1: maltase
    • 2: sucrase
    • 3: lactase
    • 4: enterokinase
    • 5: peptidases
  12. what is a function of peptidases
    converts polipeptides into amino acids
  13. what is the function of enterokinase
    activates tripsin in pancreatic juice
  14. what is the function of
    1: maltase
    2: sucrase
    3: lactase
    to split disaccharides into monoaccharides
  15. what is an enzyme
    An enzyme is a substance consisting largely or wholly of PROTEIN that acts as a catalyst (a substance that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent change).
  16. what is an protein
    building materials of the body  made up of interlinked polipeptide chains
  17. what are peptones
    a soluble protein formed in the early stage of protein breakdown during digestion.
  18. what are polipeptydes
    • Polypeptides are groups of amino acids.
    • Usually polypeptides are thousands of amino acids long. When polypeptides get long enough, they can fold over. The FIRST time they fold over on itself or to another polypeptide the sequence is then a protein.
  19. what is an aminoacid
    • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. They are used a lot of body building as they are required for muscles to grow. 
    •  An amino acid is smaller than a polypeptide. A polypeptide is usually smaller than a protein.
  20. what are carbohydrates
    • energy giving nutrient syntesized by photosintesis in the plans.
    • Made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • C6H12O6
  21. what are disaccharides
    • C12H22O11
    • Sucrose=1 glucose+1 fructose molecule
    • Lactose=1glucose+1galactose
    • Maltose=1glucose+1glucose
    • two monoasaccharised chemically linked together
  22. what are polisaccharides
    • Consists of many monosaccharides - formula (C6H10O5)n
    • examples - starch - mainly in grains and veg foods,
    • glycogen - form of animal starch storred in the liver and muscles
    • cellulose - structural framework and fibrous parts of plants - steams, seeds, leaves and roots - not soluble, not providing the energy, acts as a roughage
    • Pectin - in small quantities in many fruit and veg, no calorific value, gelly
  23. what are monosaccharides
    • Fructose and galactose
    • They have the same number of carbon and oxygen atoms (6) and 12 hydrogen atoms but they are arranged differently
    • C6H12O6
  24. what are fats - lipids
    • a) three fatty acids+glycerole {has 3 hydroxyl(OH) groups which can combine with three fatty acid molecules}
    • b)
  25. what are fatty acids
    • Acids found in lipids
    • Differ in the amount of hydrogen they contain: 
    • Saturated - all carbon atoms bond to hydrogen,
    • Monounsaturated two carbon atoms have no hydrogen - therefore double bond in between them  - e.g in olive oil (oleic acid) , Polyunsaturated - more than one double bond in between carbon molecules 
    • - linoleic acid (wheat germ oil) has 2 double bonds
    • - linolenic acid in many veg oils has three double bonds
    • polyunsaturated are essential fatty acids
  26. unsaturated fatty acids look like and are found in
    • soft or oily in the room temp
    • found mainly in veg foods and oils and fish
Card Set
digestion enzymes where about main macronutrints
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