Exam 4

  1. What are the four processes of food processing
    • Motility
    • Secretion
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
  2. What are the 4 ways GI tract motility and secretion are regulated
    • Autonomous smooth muscle
    • Intrinsic nerve plexus
    • Extrinsic nerves
    • Gastrointestinal hormones
  3. What 3 targets are activated by receptor activation in the GI tract
    • Chemoreceptors
    • Mechanoreceptors
    • Osmoreceptors
  4. List 4 components of saliva and give each components function
    • Bicarbonate: buffers acids that can damage teeth
    • Mucin: Moistens food
    • Salivary amylase: Begins CHO digestion
    • Lysozyme: kill bacteria
  5. List 3 cells of the oxynitic region and their products
    • Mucus Cells: Mucus
    • Chief Cells: Pepsinogen
    • Parietal Cells: HCL and intrinsic factor
  6. List 3 cell types of the pyloric gland area and their products
    • ECL cells: Histamine
    • G Cells: Gastrin
    • D cells: Somatostatin
  7. What is the function of HCL on the stomach
    • Activates pepsinogen into pepsin
    • provides acidic environment optimal for pepsin activity
    • Break down of CT and muscle fibers
    • Denatures proteins
    • Kills additional organisms
  8. What is the function of pepsin in the stomach
    • To activate other pepsinogen molecules
    • Intiates protein digestion
  9. Why is pepsin released in the inactive form pepsinogen
    So it doesn't digest chief cells
  10. What 3 signals stimulate secretions from the stomach
    • Ach 
    • Gastrin
    • Histamine
  11. What signal inhibits secretions from the stomach
  12. List the proteolytic enzymes released by the pancreas
    • Trypsinogen
    • Chemotrypsinogen
    • Procarboxypeptidase
  13. List the CHO and lipid digesting enzymes released from the pancreas
    Pancreatic amylase and pancreatic lipase
  14. List a non enzyme exocrine secretion from the pancreas. What is its function?
    Bicarbonate: Neutralize gastic acid
  15. What is secretin and what does it do
    • An enterogastrone
    • regulates release of NaHCO3
  16. What is cholecystokinin and what does it do?
    • An enterogastrone
    • Regulates the release of digestive enzymes
  17. List 5 products of bile
    • NaHCO3
    • cholesterol
    • bile salts
    • lecithin
    • bilirubin
  18. Describe protein digestion (include enzyme and location of digestion) and absorption
    • In stomach proteins broken down by pepsin into polypeptides
    • In SI polypeptides are broken down by chemotrypsin into small peptides
    • Small peptides broken down by carboxypeptidase and amino peptidase  into amino acids
    • Abosorbed by the capillary
  19. Describe Fat Digestion
    • Truglycerides broken down by lipase into monoglyceride and 2 fatty acids in SI
    • Absorbed by central lacteal
  20. Describe CHO digestion
    • Starch broke down by salivary amylase into maltose
    • In SI starch and glycogen are broken down by pancreatic amylase into maltose
    • Maltose is broken down by maltase into 2 glucose molecules
    • Monosaccharides absorbed by capillary
  21. List 4 adaptation to small intestine that make it good at absorption
    • Long tube
    • Circular folds
    • Villi
    • Microvilli
  22. What is a tropic hormone
    • Does not have direct effect 
    • regulates secretions of other endocrine glands
  23. What four ways are the plasma concentrations of hormones regulated
    • Rate of secretion
    • Rate of metabolic activation
    • Extent of binding to plasma proteins
    • Rate of removal
  24. What is a permissive relationship between hormones
    One hormone must be present for the full effect of another hormone to happen
  25. What is a synergistic relationship between hormones
    Hormones that complement each other and combine effects
  26. What is an antagonistic relationship between hormones
    Decreases one hormone's receptors and diminishing the effects of the other hormone
  27. What 2 hormones are released from the posterior pituitary
    • Vasopressin 
    • Oxytocin
  28. List 6 hormones released from the anterior pituitary
    • Growth Hormone
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
    • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
    • Luteinizing Hormone
    • Prolactin
  29. List 3 benefits of the hypothalamic portal vessels
    • Direct delivery of blood
    • Bypasses systemic circulation
    • No dilution
  30. What cell produces ground substance in bone
  31. What 2 substrates are needed to make thyroid hormone
    • Tyrosine 
    • Iodine
  32. What is the difference between T3 and T4. Structure and activity
    • Make more T4 but T3 is more active at tissues. 
    • T4 has one more iodine
  33. List 3 regions of adrenal cortex and what hormone each region produces
    • Zona glomerulosa: Mineralocorticoids
    • Zona Fasiculata: Glucocorticoids 
    • Zona reticularis: Sex steriods
  34. What hormone is dominant during absorptive state
  35. What hormone is dominant during post-absorptive state
  36. List 2 functions of the male reproductive system
    • Production of sperm
    • Delivery of sperm to female
  37. List 5 functions of the female reproductive system
    • Production of ova
    • Reception of sperm
    • Transport of sperm and ovum to common site for fertilization
    • Maintenance of the developing fetus
    • Giving birth to the baby
  38. List the three stages of spermatogenesis
    • Mitotic proliferation 
    • Meiosis
    • Packaging
  39. List 4 parts of the mature spermatozoa
    • Head 
    • Acrosome
    • Mid-piece
    • Tail
  40. What is the different between a diploid cell and a haploid cell
    • A diploid cell contains 46 chromosomes 
    • Haploid contains 23 Chromosomes
  41. Being as specific as possible, during spermatogenesis when does the cell change from diploid to haploid
    Meiosis I
  42. List 4 functions of the sertoli cell
    • Form blood-testes barrier
    • Provide nourishment
    • Phagocytic function
    • Secretes androgen binding protein
  43. What 2 steroid hormones are produced by the female reproductive tract
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
  44. Why can males make gametes up to their 70's and females usually stop at their 50's
    • Males make unlimited amounts of spermatozoa 
    • Females are born with a limited number of ova
  45. What are the parts of a follicle on the ovary
    • Oocyte
    • Granulosa cells
  46. When does the first meiotic arrest end during oogenesis
    At the end of meiosis I
  47. When does the second meiotic arrest end during oogenesis?
    At the end of meiosis II
  48. What are the two phases of the ovarian cycle and what hormone is dominant in each
    • Follicular phase: Estrogen
    • Luteal Phase: Progesterone
  49. What are the 3 phases of the menstrual cycle
    • Menstrual 
    • Proliferative
    • Secretory
Card Set
Exam 4