Raine et al 1997 - Key Study in Biological Psychology

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  1. Aim
    To see if there were brain differences between murderers pleading NGRI and non-murderers.
  2. How many Pts (total, male and female), and what was their mean age?
    • 41 Participants in total
    • 39 male
    • 2 female
    • 34 was the mean age
  3. What were pts charged with?
    Either murder or manslaughter
  4. How many people had a history of brain damage?
  5. How many pts had schizophrenia?
  6. How many pts had a substance abuse history?
  7. How many pts had a mood disorder?
  8. How many pts had epilepsy?
  9. How many pts had learning disabilities/ hyperactive disorder?
  10. How many had paranoid personality disorder?
  11. What type of design was it? Briefly explain what this meant.
    Matched Pairs design - Pts in the control group had to be matched to the conditions of the non-murders e.g. a murderer with schizophrenia would be matched with a non-murderer in the control group, who also had schizophrenia.
  12. Where did the study take place?
    University of California
  13. Briefly explain the scanning procedure?
    Pts were injected with a 'tracer' and did continuous performance tasks before having a PET scan about 30 minutes later. 10 images of their brain were taken.
  14. Explain the examining process of the PET scan images.
    • 'Slices' and 'Boxes' of brain were examined and linked to the scan results to suggest areas for violence. Glucose levels in the brain pictures of murderers were compared with those of the controls.
    • MANOVA was conducted in order to do this comparison.
  15. What were the results relating to the prefrontal areas?
    Murders had lower glucose levels than the controls.
  16. What were the results relating to the temporal lobe?
    No significant differences between groups.
  17. What were the results relating to the corpus callosum?
    Murders had lower glucose levels.
  18. What were the results relating to the amygdala?  What is this area of the brain linked to?
    Murderers had different levels of activity in the amygdala (an area linked to aggression)
  19. What was the conclusion of the study?
    The study provides preliminary evidence that murderers have different brain functioning from normal controls, suggesting violence has a biological cause.
  20. Give an example to use in the conclusion?
    Prefrontal deficits can lead to loss of self control & murders had different  levels of activity in prefrontal regions (compared to non-murderers/ control group)
Card Set
Raine et al 1997 - Key Study in Biological Psychology
Raine et al 1997 - Key Study in Biological Psychology for Edexcel AS Level Psychology
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