BIOL 1210 Chapter 17 Vocab

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  1. Transcription
    the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template
  2. translation
    the synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. Change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids
  3. triplet code
    a genetic information system in which a set of three nucleotide long words specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains
  4. transfer RNA (tRNA)
    an RNA molecule that functions as a translator between nucleic acid and protein languages by carry specific amino acids to the ribosome, where they recognize the appropriate codons in the mRNA
  5. template strand
    the DNA strand that provides the pattern, or template, for ordering, by complementary base pairing, the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript
  6. TATA box
    a DNA sequence in eukaryotic promoters crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex
  7. transcription unit
    a region of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
  8. genetic code
    the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material is translated into proteins by living cells
  9. codon
    a three nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code
  10. reading frame
    on mRNA, the triplet grouping of ribonucleotides used by the translation machinery during polypeptide synthesis
  11. anticodon
    a nucleotide triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that base-pairs with a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule
  12. wobble
    flexibility in the base pairing rules in which the nucleotide at the 5' end of tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3' end) of a codon
  13. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    a type of RNA synthesized using a DNA template, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein
  14. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    RNA molecules, that together with proteins, make up ribosomes; the most abundant type of RNA
  15. ribosome
    a complex of rRNA and protein molecules that functions as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
  16. RNA polymerase
    an enzyme that links ribonucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription based on complementary binding to nucleotides on a DNA template strand
  17. promoter
    a specific nucleotide sequence in the DNA of a gene that binds RNA polymerase, positioning it to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place
  18. primary transcript
    an initial RNA transcript from any gene; also called pre-mRNA when transcribed from a protein coding gene
  19. RNA processing
    modification of RNA primary transcripts,including splicing out of introns, joining together of exons, and alteration of the 5' and 3' ends
  20. RNA splicing
    after synthesis of a eukaryotic primary RNA transcript, the removal of portions of the transcript (introns) that will not be included in the mRNA and the joining together of the remaining portions (eons)
  21. intron
    a noncoding, intervening sequence within a primary transcript that is removed from the transcript during RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed
  22. exon
    a sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed
  23. ribozymes
    an RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme, such as an intron that catalyzes its own removal during RNA splicing
  24. polyribosome
    a group of several ribosomes attached to, and translating, the same messenger RNA molecule
  25. point mutation
    a change in a single nucleotide pair of a gene
  26. mutation
    a change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA or in the DNA or RNA of a virus
  27. missense mutation
    a nucleotide pair substitution that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
  28. germ-line mutation
    any detectable and heritable variation in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells are transmitted to offspring, while, on the other hand, those in somatic cells are not
  29. somatic mutation
    Alterations in DNA that occur after conception; mutations can occur in any of the cells of the body except the germ cells (sperm and egg) and therefore are not passed on to children. These alterations can (but do not always) cause cancer or other diseases
  30. base pair substitution
    a type of mutation (point mutation) that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material, DNA or RNA
  31. base pair insertion
    A point mutation in which a base is inserted into the sequence. It's very dangerous because it alters the reading frame.
  32. base pair deletion
    type of DNA mutation in which one or more bases are removed from the chain
  33. frameshift mutation
    a mutation occurring when nucleotides are inserted in or deleted from a gene and the number inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the subsequent nucleotides into codons
  34. silent mutation
    a nucleotide pair substitution that has no observable effect on the phenotype
  35. nonsense mutation
    a mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually non-functional protein
  36. mutagen
    a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and can cause a mutation
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BIOL 1210 Chapter 17 Vocab
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