Study Notes for Final Exam (Literary Movements)

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  1. Ancients(3000 B.C.-A.D. 500):
    Beginning of the first writings in Bronze Age Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Writing proper develops out of systems of picture writing by the 30th century BC, although the oldest literary texts that have come down to us are several centuries younger, dating to the 27th or 26rh century BC. Literature of the Iron Age includes the earliest texts preserved in manuscript tradition (as opposed to archaeologically), including the Indian Vedas, the oldest parts of the Hebrew Bible, The Qur'an, and early writings in Asia.
  2. Classical (800 B.C.-A.D. 500):
    The branch of the humanities comprising the languages, literature, philosophy, history, art, archaeology and other culture of the ancient Mediterranean world (Bronze Age ca. BC 3000 - Late Antiquity ca. AD 300-600); especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome during Classical Antiquity (ca. BC 600-AD 600). Initially, study of the Classics (the period's literature) was the principal study in the humanities.
  3. Middle Ages (A.D. 450-1300):
    The literature of this time was composed of religious writings as well as secular works. The Middle Ages saw the beginnings of a rebirth in literature. Early medieval books were painstakingly hand-copied and illustrated by monks. Wandering scholars and poets traveling to the Crusades learned of new writing styles. Courtly Love spawned a new interest in romantic prose.
  4. Renaissance (1300-1650):
    The 'rebirth' of literature, art, and learning that progressively transformed European culture throughout Europe, particularly England and Italy, strongly influence by the rediscovery of classical Greek and Latin Literature, and accelerated by the development of printing. The Enlightenment is a direct continuation of the Renaissance's intellectual and artistic transformations, including the emergence of humanism.
  5. Enlightenment (1660-1790):
    An intellectual movement in France and other parts of Europe that emphasized the importance of human reason, progress, and liberty. The Enlightenment, sometime called the "Age of Reason" or "Rationalism," is primarily associated with nonfiction writing, such as essays and philosophical treaties.
  6. Humanism (16th -19th century):
    a 19th century term for the values and ideals of the European Renaissance, which placed a new emphasis on the expansion of human capacities. Reviving the study of Greek and Roman history, philosophy, and arts, the Renaissance humanists developed an image of 'Man' more positive and hopeful than that of medieval ascetic Christianity. rather than being a miserable sinner awaiting redemption from a pit of fleshly corruption, 'Man' was a source of infinite possibilities, ideally developing towards a balance of physical, spiritual, moral, and intellectual faculties. Most early humanists in the 16th and 17th centuries combined elements of Christian and classical cultures in what has become known as Christian Humanism. This time period was also influenced by the Reformation and Calvinism.
  7. Romanticism (1798-1832):
    A literary and artistic movement that reacted against the restraints and universalism of the Enlightenment. The romantics celebrated spontaneity, imagination, subjectivity, and the purity of nature.
  8. Realism (1830-1900):
    A late-19th-century literary movement-primarily French, English, and American-that aimed at accurate detailed portrayal of ordinary, contemporary life. Many of the 19th century's greatest novelists are classified as realist. Naturalism can be seen as an intensification of realism.
  9. Naturalism (1865-1900):
    A literary movement that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had inescapable force in shaping human character.
  10. Modernism (1890-1940):
    A literary and artistic movement that provided a radical break with traditional modes of Western art, thought, religion, social conventions, and morality. Major themes of this period include the attack on notions of hierarchy; experimentation in new forms of narrative viewpoints and modes of thinking; and self-referentiality as a means of drawing attention to the relationship between artist and audience, and form and content.
  11. Surrealism (1920-1940):
    An avant-grade movement, based primarily in France, that sought to break down the boundaries between rational and irrational, conscious and unconscious, through a variety of literary and artistic experiments. The surrealist poets were not a successful as their artist counterparts.
  12. Magic Realism (1935 -present):
    A style of writing that combines realism with moments of dream-like fantasy within a single prose narrative.
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Study Notes for Final Exam (Literary Movements)
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