Spacecraft Systems Final

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  1. The spacecraft project mission statement answers the question _____
  2. The most common liquid monopropellant used for rocket propulsion is _____
  3. An ion engine has a distinct advantage over chemical rocket motors for some applications because of its _______
    very high Isp
  4. A hybrid rocket motor typically consists of ________ and _______
    solid fuel and liquid oxidizer
  5. Heating compressed (cold) gas increases the propulsion system's ________
  6. The Space Shuttle's solid rocket boosters used ______ for fuel
    powdered aluminum
  7. The speed of data transfer in a communications system is primarily determined by the _____
  8. A _______ is used to couple an electromagnetic signal to space
  9. The most useful band for spacecraft communications is the microwave band between ___ and ___ Ghz
    1 and 10
  10. Many of the spacecraft C&DH components must be ______ to protect from the high radiation levels in space
  11. The command processor in a spacecraft command and data handling system is used to ______,_____, and __________
    process, validate, and relay commands
  12. The approximate useful range of a solar photovoltaic power is from the Sun to the orbit of _____
  13. Spacecraft fuel cells use _____ and ____ as reactants
    oxygen and hydrogen
  14. The nuclear _____ system generates the highest power levels of any spacecraft electrical power system
  15. All nuclear power systems provide electrical energy by converting _____ into electrical power
  16. Gravity gradient is an example of _____ spacecraft attitude control
  17. An onboard GPS system would be an example of a spacecraft ______and/or _______
    attitude and/or trajectory determination sensor
  18. The greatest temperature range/difference in the solar system (outside the Sun) is found _____
    near Mercury
  19. Heat pipes are an example of ______ thermal control components
  20. A polished metal surface would have _____
    • low emissivity
    • low absorptivity
  21. The Earth's reflected energy is approximately _____% of direct solar heating
  22. The most commonly used spacecraft structural material is _____
    aluminum alloy
  23. Ductility of spacecraft structural materials should be ______ to avoid cracking
  24. The highest energy band in the electromagnetic spectrum of energy is the _____ band
    gamma-ray  (y-ray)
  25. The sp;ar wind is composed of mostly _____ and ____ particles
    proton and electron
  26. The source of energy for the sun is the fusion of ____ into _____
    hydrogen into helium
  27. typical solar wind velocity is approximately _____ km/s
  28. the number of dark spots in the sun is closely correlated with the ____ of the sun
  29. The earth's magnetic field is generated by the motion of the liquid-_____ core
  30. Escape velocity is _____ times circular velocity at the same radius
    sqrt 2
  31. the ____ is defined as the mean distance between the earth and sun
    astronomical unit
  32. the total energy for an unbound orbit is ______
  33. calculate the period of a homann transfer orbit from earth to mars
    .71 years
  34. The optimum latitude from the earths surface is _____ deg
  35. the most efficient fuel available for chemical rocket propulsion is ________
  36. the shortest time of flight from earth to mars or to any other orbit is with a type ___ transfer
  37. hyperbolic propellants require no
  38. _____ cooling is used to reduce the extremely high temperature in liquid propellant combustion chambers and nozzles
  39. low voltage/current signals in typical sensors are increased to digital circuit voltages by using a __________
    signal conditioner
  40. A spacecraft communications command processor is used to ________ _______
    process commands
  41. a ______ antenna is used as a standard to measure or compare to other antenna types
  42. a signal-to-noise ratio of __:1 is considered reasonable for reliable signal reception on a simple communications system
  43. if the diameter of a communications antenna were doubled, how much would the signal gain increase
  44. deep-space missions are supported by NASAs _____ network
    deep space
  45. the first manned spacecraft to use digital telemetry was ______
  46. spacecraft communications systems generally use _____ modulation for data formatting
    pulse code
  47. a linear vertical antenna would receive ____ of the signal from a left circular polarized transmitted signal
  48. to prevent either accidental or malicious interference with spacecraft operations, both the uplink and downlink communication signals are _______
  49. the dB value corresponding to a power gain of 10,000 is ____ dB
  50. NASAs TDRSS ground station for satellite communications network is located near _______
    white sands, NM
  51. The central frequency of a communications signal ____ if the spacecraft is moving towards the ground station
  52. spacecraft electronics are protected from all but the most extreme radiation damage by a process called radiation ______
  53. ______ is needed in spacecraft command & data handling systems to avoid catastrophic error and component failures
  54. the space shuttle digital processing system incorporated ____ separate general purpose computers
  55. the output voltage of a solar photovoltaic cell would ____ if the cell temperature is increased
  56. the maximum power available from a photovoltaic array is found at on the voltage-current output plot at a point called the ______
    maximum power point
  57. the total energy available from a battery is often measured in ____-hours
  58. a batterys depth of discharge will ______ with increasing age
  59. voltage from solar cells can be increased from a fraction of a volt to tens or hundreds of volts using a ____ circuit connection
  60. NASAs prototype nuclear reactor that was to be used for high-power, deep space missions was called SNAP-____
  61. nuclear reactor power sources employ a type of radioisotope material _____ material
  62. direct current is converted into alternating current using a _______
  63. the most common radioisotope used in spacecraft RPG/RTG power sources is ______
  64. A conductive _______ was used to test the generation of electrical field power during orbit on two space shuttle mission flights
  65. because they are expensive, and because they produce water, fuel cells are only used on ____ space flight missions
    human crew
  66. a RTG powered by the 238 PU isotope generates ____ gas as part of its decay process
  67. gravity gradient is a ____ type of attitude stabilization
  68. the two types of motion sensors used to measure motion are rotation and ____ sensors
  69. the militaries navstar global positioning system can be used to determine position and velocity for spacecraft in ____ orbit
  70. the greatest torque of the three gyroscopic control systems is provided by the _____
    control moment gyros
  71. the ____ force is used to help desaturate the momentum exchange devices on the ISS
    gravity gradient
  72. the ____ carries the attitude, position, and time data used for the ISS GN&C functions
    state vector
  73. optical terrain guidance was used in the ____ manned spacecraft
  74. pointing calculations and control operations are needed for the ISS ______, radiators, and solar arrays
  75. a _____ tracker is used for accurate determination of the position of a spacecraft in three dimensions
  76. a ring ____ gyro can measure both rotational and translational motion on a spacecraft
  77. the US segment employs _____ units for the attitude control on the ISS
    control moment gyro
  78. The space shuttle used ____ for cooling fluids in its external active cooling loop
  79. a heat pipe is an example of a ____ thermal control system
  80. one of the most common surface coatings for spacecraft radiation is _____
  81. the narrowest range of temperatures in the solar system would be near the planet _____
  82. _____ is an example of a coating/material has both high alpha  and high emmistivity
    black paint
  83. with the exception of heat pipes, _____ heat transfer is not significant in or on spacecraft because of the lack of gravity
  84. ______ emits blackbody radiation
    all of the above
  85. the ____ effect is used in thermoelectric cooling that is powered by electrical current
  86. according several laws of thermodynamics, heat always flows from ____ to _____
    hot to cold
  87. temperature is a measure of _____ energy
  88. the ____ is another term commonly used for a spacecraft primary structure
  89. the most abundant solid particles in space are extremely small but can produce significant ____ over long periods of spacecraft exposure
    surface erosion
  90. thermal expansion in spacecraft structures and materials _________
    should be minimized
  91. the resonant frequency of a beam would _____ with a decrease in the beams mass
  92. the soviets used the basic ____ shape for their early spacecraft structures
  93. the greatest vibrational energy source on a spacecraft during its operation is in the ____ phase
  94. vacuum effects on solid materials including metals can produce _____, which could result in the formation of whiskers
  95. torques from external magnetic fields can be minimized by avoiding _____ materials in the spacecraft
  96. one significant disadvantage in using titanium for spacecraft structures is that it is difficult to ________
  97. the vibrational frequency- amplitude spectrum of a launch vehicle ________
    changes with altitude
  98. many of the early american spacecraft, and even some today, employ a _____ shaped bus structure
  99. one of the most effective spacecraft debris shields is not a thick, solid chamber wall, but a __________ that disperses any impacting particle energy over a large area
    thin standoff shield
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Spacecraft Systems Final
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