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  1. What organ makes insulin?
  2. What metabolic state does insulin trigger?  What does insulin do?
    absorptive (fed).  Insulin lowers blood by promoting sugar to be taken in and used.
  3. Most of glucose is absorbed during which state?
    absorption state
  4. Most of fats are oxidized during which state?
    post absorptive state
  5. Glucose is oxidized by the brain in which state?
    BOTH  absorptive & post absorptive
  6. What is the function of chylomicrons?
    AKA packages of triglycerides

    they carry triglycerides from the intestine (via lymphatics) to the adipose & muscle
  7. What does essential amino acid mean?
    cannot be made by the body, so it must come from the diet
  8. The liver makes?
    • -Makes amino acids
    • -Carbohydrate metabolism:
    • Gluconeogenesis- the synthesis of glucose from certain amino acids, lactate or glycerol
    • Glycogenolysis- the breakdown of glycogen into glucose
    • Glycogenesis- the formation of glycogen from glucose (muscle tissues can also do this)
    • -Protein metabolism, synthesis as well as degradation.
    • -Cholesterol synthesis  (A bulk of the lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver)
    • -Coagulation factors 
    • -Produces and excretes bile
    • -Serum Albumin
    • -Angiotensinogen (a hormone that is responsible for raising the blood pressure when activated by renin, an enzyme that is released when the kidney senses low blood pressure)
  9. The liver stores?
    • vitamins (A, D, B12, K)
    • iron
    • glucose (in form of glycogen)
  10. Liver functions:
    Ketones are made from?
    fatty acids
  11. Glucose can be made from ______ if glucose is not readily available
  12. Vitamin A - retinol
    photorecptors (eyes), epithelial integrity, lysosome stability
  13. Vitamin D
    • calcium (& phosphorus) absorption
    • source: sun rays
    • deficiency: rickets, osteomalacia
  14. Vitamin E
    • antioxidant
    • free radical scavenger
  15. Vitamin K
    • coagulation, prothrombin formation
    • source: intestinal flora
  16. B12
    • regenerates folic acid
    • metabolic reactions essential to brain,
    • - found in animal products, therefore vegans beware!
  17. Vitamin c
    collagen formation

    deficiency: scury
  18. What is the number of calories needed to survive?
  19. What decreases BMR (basal metabolic rate)
    • age
    • sleep
  20. What organ controls body temp?
  21. If body is cold, how does it increase temperature?
    None of the above

    (NOT by sweating, reduced muscle tone, increased surface blood flow)
  22. SO WHEN you have a fever, the hypothalamus does what?
    HYpothalamus MAINTAINS HEAT

    pyrogens reset the "normal", and hypothalamus RAISES the temperature
Card Set
metabolism, A&PII, bhcc
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