CH10 ntd303

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  1. do not yield any energy, however many of them assist the enzymes that participate in the release of energy from carbs, protein and fat
  2. vitamins differ from macronutrients how?
    • structure
    • function
    • food contents
  3. structure of vitamins?
    individual units
  4. function of vitamins?
    no energy yielded
  5. food contents of vitamins?
    organic, contain carbon
  6. some vitamins from foods are in their ____ form?
  7. vitamin in inactive form known as ?
    precursor or provitamin
  8. once inside the body, the precursor gets converted to ?
    the active form of that vitamin
  9. factors influencing bioavailability?
    • efficiency of digestion
    • nutrition status
    • method of food preparation
    • source of nutrient
    • other foods consumed at same time
  10. quantity provided by food and amount absorbed and used by body
  11. because they are ____, vitamins can be destroyed during storage and in cooking
  12. converted to active form in body
    precursors aka provitamins
  13. water soluble vitamins?
    • B vitamins
    • Vitamin C
  14. fat soluble vitamins?
    • A
    • E
    • D
    • K
  15. type of vitamins that is more likely to cause toxicity because they can be stored in your liver and adipose tissue
    fat soluble
  16. energy metabolism is affected by what vitamins/.
    b vitamins
  17. affects absorption, transport and excretion
  18. move directly into blood and most travel freely
    watersoluble vitamins
  19. water soluble vitamins are hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
  20. enter lymph and then blood, require transport proteins
    fat soluble vitamins
  21. assist enzymes with release of energy
  22. part of coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate
    vitamin B1 (thiamin)
  23. B1 is responsible for?
    coversion to pyruvate to acetyl CoA
  24. B1 effects ?
    • energy metabolism
    • nerve activity and muscle activity
  25. signs of a thiamin deficiency?
    • malnourished and alcoholics
    • beriberi
  26. thiamin deficiency disease?
  27. two types of beriberi? what are they
    • dry - nervous system
    • wet - cardiovascular system
  28. toxicity of thiamin?
    no UL
  29. food sources of thiamin?
    whole grain, fortified, enriched grains, pork
  30. thiamin is /
    easily destroyed by heat
  31. wet beriberi?
    dialated blood vessels that leads to edema
  32. dry beriberi?
    muscle weakness in arms and legs
  33. edema is aka
    wet beriberi
  34. serves as a coenzyme in energy metabolism
    riboflavin (B2)
  35. 2 forms of B2 enzymes?
    • FMN
    • FAD
  36. riboflavin recommendations women? men?
    • 1.1 mg/day
    • 1.3 mg/day
  37. riboflavin deficiency?
    inflammation of membranes
  38. toxicity riboflavin?
    no UL
  39. food sources riboflavin?
    milk and milk products
  40. what is riboflavin destroyed by?
    UV light and irradiation, not designed for cooking
  41. riboflavin is aka
  42. 2 chemical structures of niacin?
    • nicotinic acid
    • nicotinamide
  43. what is converted to what with niacin?
    nicotinic acid to nicotinamide
  44. major form of niacin in blood?
  45. two coenzymes of niacin?
    • NAD
    • NADP (phosphate form)
  46. both coenzymes in niacin are involved in
    energy transfer reactions, especially in metabolism of glucose, fat and alcohol
  47. characterized by dilated capillaries, which cause a tingling sensation that can be painful
    niacin flush
  48. niacin deficiency?
  49. 4 D's of pellagra?
    • diarrhea
    • dermatitis
    • dementia
    • death
  50. toxicity of niacin?
    supplements or drugs niacin flush
  51. food sources of niacin?
    • milk
    • eggs
    • meat
    • poulty
    • fish
    • nuts
    • grains
  52. coenzyme that carries activated carbon dioxide
  53. this B vitamin deliver carbon to pyruvate to form oxaloacetate
  54. biotin?
    • critical in TCA cycle
    • participates in glucogenesis and fatty acid synthesis
  55. recommendations for biotin?
    30 micrograms/day
  56. biotin deficiencies?
    • rare
    • skin rash, hair loss, neuro impairment
  57. toxicity biotin?
    no UL
  58. food sources of biotin?
    • liver
    • egg yolks
    • soybeans
    • fish
    • whole grains
  59. part of chemical structure of coenzyme A
    pantothenic acid
  60. pantothenic acid toxicity?
    no UL
  61. food sources of pantothenic acid
    • beef
    • poultry
    • whole grains
    • potatoes
    • tomatoes
  62. how is pantothenic acid destroyed?
    • freezing
    • canning
    • refining
  63. 3 forms of B6?
    • pyridoxal
    • pyridoxine
    • pyridoxamine
  64. all 3 forms of B6 can be converted to?
  65. stored exclusively in muscle tissue
    Vitamin B6
  66. deficiency B6?
    • depression/confusion
    • abnormal brain waves/convulsions
  67. toxicity B6?
    no more than 100mg/day
  68. food sources of B6?
    • meat
    • fish
    • poultry
    • potatoes
    • starchy veg
    • soy
    • legumes
  69. tuberculosis medication that is an antagonist to B6
Card Set
CH10 ntd303
the water soluble vitamins
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