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  1. What does the atomic number represent?
    the number of protons
  2. ____ are found inside the nucleus and has a positive charge.
  3. _____ are found outside of the nucleus and has a negative charge.
  4. What reacts because of the electrons?
  5. What does the atomic mass represent?
    the amount of protons plus the amount of neutrons
  6. What is the electron that reacts?
    the valence electron
  7. Each ring outside of the nucleus holds how many electrons?
    8 except for the first one that only contains 2
  8. _____ are held together by positive and negative charges.
    Ionic bonds
  9. ____ share electrons
    covalent bonds
  10. When an atom shares bonds equally it is _____.
  11. What are the four most common elements in order?
    carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen
  12. Why is a water molecule polar?
    because of the electronegativity difference, which creates a slightly more negatively charged oxygen and slightly more positively charged hydrogens.
  13. What gives water most of its unique properties?
    Hydrogen bonding
  14. Are enzymes affected by their environment?
  15. Do all enzymes function in the same optimal conditions?
  16. What helps enzymes work better and faster?
  17. If an enzyme loses its shape integrity can carry out its function?
  18. Enzymes are ___ and _____.
    proteins and catalysts
  19. How do enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction?
    by applying pressure to the reactants, bringing the reactants closer together and by pulling on the reactants to apply stress to the bonds
  20. What makes the backbone of DNA and RNA?
    sugar and phosphate
  21. The four nucleotide bases of DNA
    adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
  22. The four nucleotide bases of RNA
    adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil
  23. What carries genetic information?
    DNA and RNA
  24. DNA and RNA are both ______ but can also be called _____.
    nucleic acids, polynucleotides
  25. What makes up DNA and RNA?
    sugar, phosphate, and base
  26. Steroid hormones are
  27. Your body stores the fats from your meal in the form of:
  28. Sucrose is a ______ made from _____ and _______.
    disaccharide; fructose; fructose
  29. Used for energy storage in animals
  30. Used for energy storage in plants
  31. What is made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen?
    a carbohydrate
  32. Carbohydrates are _______. What is their function?
    polysaccharides; store energy
  33. Monosaccarides have a _:_:_ ratio of C:H:O.
  34. Monosaccarides have a 1:2:1 ratio of _:_:_.
  35. the internal bonds that keep the protein stable, the amino acid sequence, and the alpha helices and beta sheets all contribute to a protein's function by helping proteins maintain there ____.
  36. What are some functions of proteins?
    They catalyze chemical reactions.  They transport materials. They repair tissues.
  37. The primary protein structure is the _____
    polypeptide chain
  38. Tertiary protein structure is the _______ folding of the _______.
    completed; polypeptide
  39. _____ and ____ are secondary protein structures.
    beta sheets and alpha helices
  40. quaternary protein structure is the ________.
    completed protein complex
  41. Amino acids have a ____ group, _____ group, and an ____ group.
    amino, carboxyl, R-group
  42. Is the carboxyl group acidic?
  43. What is the "R-group" short for?
  44. What is the loss of a water molecule?
    dehydration synthesis
  45. amino acids bond through ______. What type of bond does it form?
    dehydration synthesis; peptide bond
  46. In order to break a peptide bond you have to add a water molecule. What is the process called?
  47. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen make up approximately ___ of all living things.
  48. Which two properties of water do plants depend on for water transport up the stems?
    adhesion and cohesion
  49. The weakest of all chemical reactions and are not considered bonds
    Van der Waals interactions
  50. Nitrogen (N2) has a ___ covalent bond.
  51. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has a ____ covalent bond.
  52. Water (H2O) has a ____ covalent bond.
  53. Salt (NaCl) is an ____compound
  54. Ionic bonds are formed between two atoms with very different ______.
  55. Ionic bonds are stronger than ______ bonds, but weaker than _____ bonds.
    hydrogen; covalent
  56. What is an acid?
    any solute that donates H+ to the solution or that accepts OH- from the solution
  57. What makes up a solution?
    a solvent and a solute
  58. What are two very important solutes?
    acids and bases
  59. A(n) ____ increases the concentration of Hions in a solution.
  60. A(n) ____ reduces the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.
  61. A ph between 0-6 is ____.
  62. A ph of 7 is ______.
  63. A ph of 8-10+ is ______.
  64. What are some unique properties of water?
    • its high surface tension 
    • its ability to absorb large amounts of heat
    • its ability to dissolve many polar compounds
  65. Water can only dissolve ___ substances.
Card Set
Chemistry portion
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