Speech Final

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  1. Definition of Ethics
    rules and value that a group defines to guide conduct and distinguish between right and wrong
  2. Difference between directly quoting and paraphrasing
    • Directly quoting: taking a phrase word for word 
    • Paraphrasing: putting it into your own words
  3. Difference between hearing and listening
    • Hearing: receiving messages
    • Listening: paying attention
  4. Two steps involved in the listening process
    • Processing what you've heard (actively thinking about message)
    • Retaining what you've processed
  5. Six culprits behind poor listening
    • unprocessed note taking
    • non-listening
    • interruption listening
    • agenda-driven listening
    • argumentative
    • nervous listening
  6. Three elements involved in becoming a better listener
    • Filter out distractions
    • focus on speaker
    • show listening
  7. Ways to anticipate and strategically maximize your audience's listening
    • Audience Surveillance
    • Anticipate ineffective listening before speech
    • consider your listeners attention and energy levels
    • Assess your audience ability an knowledge
    • front and back load main message
    • use presentation aides strategically
    • encourage active listening during your speech
    • tailor your delivery
    • watch out for argumentative listeners
    • watch out for defeated listeners
    • watch out for superficial listeners
  8. Difference between subordination and coordination (define)
    • Subordination: creating a hierarchy of points and supporting materials
    • Coordination: same level of significance of each main point
  9. Guidelines for selecting main points
    • consider your purpose
    • take audience into account
    • select an appropriate number of main points
  10. Different ways of arranging main points (define)
    • Spatial - location
    • temporal - chronological
    • Casual - cause/effect
    • Comparison - similarities
    • Problem-Cause-solution 
    • Criteria-Application - what something is, what thing is something
    • Narrative - story
    • Categorical - topical
  11. Difference between transitions, signposts, internal previews, internal summaries (define)
    • Transitions: one part to next
    • Signposts - words or phrases within sentences that help audience understand speech structure
    • Internal previews - short list of ideas that will follow
    • Internal summary - quick review of what you just said about main point
  12. Different ways to gain audience attention
    • tell story or anecdote
    • offer a striking or provocative statement
    • build suspense
    • let listeners know you are one of them
    • use humor
    • ask a rhetorical question
    • provide a quotation
  13. Elements of Introduction
    • Gain audience attention
    • Signal your thesis
    • Relevancy
    • Establish your credibility
    • Preview main point
  14. Elements in Conclusion
    • Transition to your conclusion
    • Summarize your Main points
    • Finish with a memorable Clincher
  15. How to create a strong ending statement
    • Tie clincher to introduction
    • End with a striking sentence or phrase
    • Conclude with an emotional message
    • End with a story or anecdote
  16. Difference between working outline and speaking outline
    • working: detail/preparation outline
    • speaking: ideas in phrases
  17. Guidelines for creating working outline
    • outlining body of speech
    • include full information for citations, quotations and other evidence
    • insert transitions
    • outline introduction
    • outline conclusion
    • creating a bibliography
    • inserting title, specific purpose and thesis
  18. Guidelines for creating speaking outline
    • main points
    • sub-points
    • sub-sub-points
    • abbreviations
    • evidence
    • difficult words
    • transitions
    • delivery notes
  19. Different modes of delievery
    • Reading from a manuscript
    • memorizing from a manuscript
    • speaking from an outline
    • Impromptu Speaking
  20. Different types of vocal delivery skills
    • Volume
    • Tone
    • Rate of Delivery
    • Projection
    • Articulation
    • Pronunciation
    • Pausing
  21. Defination of articulation
    crispness or clarity of words
  22. Different types of nonverbal delivery skills
    • Eye contact
    • Gestures
    • Physical Movement
    • Proximity
    • Personal appearance
  23. Importance of eye contact in delivery.
    • gauge audience interest
    • helps you interact with audience
    • compel your audience attention
  24. Different ways audiovisual aids can enhance your speech
    • make speech more interesting
    • help audience remember
    • simplify a complex topic
  25. Types of Visual Aids
    • Speaker
    • Assistants
    • Objects
    • Visual Images
    • Maps
    • Photographs/drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphs
    • List, tables, and other text based visuals
    • Audio and Video
  26. Guidleines for preparing audiovisual aids
    • consider forum (location)
    • consider audience
    • demographic
    • prior exposure
    • make sure aids support your points
    • rehearsing with presentation aids
  27. Guidelines for using audiovisual aids
    • make sure everyone can see and hear your speech
    • control audience interaction with your aids
    • maintain eye contact
    • remember purpose of aids
  28. Goal of persuasive speech
    • attempt to influence audience members
    • strengthen audience commitment
    • weaken audience commitment
    • advocate audience action
  29. Different types of persuasive speeches (define)
    • Fact - assert that something is ture or false 
    • Value - attached a judgement to a subject (mortality)
    • Policy - adovate  action by organization, institution or member of your audience
  30. Definition of Strategic Discourse
    process of selecting arguments to support your theses that will best achienced through your rhetorical purpse
  31. Ethical Persausion
    • Help your audience make an informed decision
    • research facts
    • note any biases
    • attribute you research properly
  32. Framing one's argument and the involvement of audience member
    • figure out where audience stands on topic
    • taylor thesis appropriately
    • latitudes of acceptance - range of positions that are acceptable to them
    • latitudes of rejections - ranges of positions that are acceptable to them
    • boomerang effect - pushing listeners to oppose your idea even more vigorously than they already do
  33. Ways to deal with audience in accordance to persuasion
    • Appealing to audience needs
    • connection to listeners values
    • demonstrating how your audience benefits
    • acknowledging listeners reservations
    • focusing on peripheral beliefs
  34. Which organizational patters should be used with different types of persuasive speeches
    • Fact: Casual, comparison, categorical
    • Value: Criteria application, categorical 
    • Policy: problem-cause-solution, comparison
  35. Define Logos
    presenting trustworthy facts to back your claims and clearly show how those facts have led you to those claims
  36. Define Ethos
    credibility, knowledgeable, honest and genuinely interested in doing the right thing for audience
  37. Define Pathos
    put human face on problem
  38. Elements of credibility
    • competence - knowledgeable and experienced
    • trustworthiness - honest and fair
    • goodwill - wanting what is best for listeners rather than what would most benefit themselves
  39. How to build credibility with the audience
    • share your qualifications to speak on the topic (credibility)
    • present strong evidence from reputable sources 
    • highlight common ground with audience
    • choose your words carefully (word choice)
    • show respect for conflicting opinions
    • practice your speech until delivery is fluent
  40. Definition of Evidence
  41. Define inductive reasoning
    generalizing from facts , instances, or examples, and then making a claim based on that generalization
  42. Types of inductive reasoning (define)
    • example - present specific instances to support a general claim
    • comparison reasoning - argue that two instances are similar so that what you know is true for one instance is likely true for other
    • sign reasoning - fact is true because in direct indicators (signs) are consistent with that fact
    • causal reasoning - argue one event has caused another
  43. Types of Logical Fallacies (define)
    • ad poplum - bandwagon
    • straw person - replace your opponents real claim with weaker claim you can more easily rebut
    • slippery slope - 1st policy will lead to 2nd policy that is undesirable
    • false dilemma - claim that only two possible choices to address a problem, 1st is wrong, so 2nd must be right
    • appeal to tradition -  idea is good because people have accepted it for a long time
    • post hoc - one event followed another so first caused second
  44. Fear Appeal (define and Example)
    argument that arouses fear in minds of audience members
  45. Five general guidelines of creating special occasion speech
    • Appeal to audience emotions
    • Matching delivery to mood of the occasion
    • Adapting to audience's expectations
    • Evoking shared values
    • Respecting time constraints
  46. Difference between effective and ineffective pauses
    • effective if gathering thoughts
    • ineffective if after after sentence
  47. Definition of Thesis
    single sentence that express the aspect of the topic you will be emphasizing in your speech
  48. Number of main points in an effective speech
  49. Why good organization is important in oral communication
    listeners don't have material in front of them
  50. Difference between main points and supporting points
    • Main points: those few ideas that are most important for your listeners to remember
    • Supporting points: material designed to prove your main point
  51. Understand what involves acknowledging the work of others
    • Quoting from a source
    • Paraphrasing the work of others
    • Common knowledge
  52. Definition of sound reasoning
    Link between claim and supporting material is strong
Card Set
Speech Final
CM 113-05 Final
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