MMG 301

  1. define prevalence
    number of cases in a population at a given time
  2. define incidence
    number of cases in a population over a given period of time
  3. define mortality
    deaths due to disease/total population of individuals (formula)
  4. define outbreak
    sudden increase in cases above normal low levels
  5. define endemic
    occurs at normal levels through population in a sporadic fashion
  6. define epidemic
    large incidence of disease, larger geographical areas, larger populations involved
  7. define pandemic
    occurs over many continents, larger populations involved than in epidemic
  8. common source epidemics is when what happens?
    all individuals get sick from a pathogen of same origin (food or water for example)
  9. what is host to host epidemic?
    initiation of a single infected individual into a susceptible population, takes time to happen
  10. what is an index case?
    first case of an epidemic "patient zero"
  11. what is a graphical trend to common source epidemics versus host to host epidemic?
    common source we see a large spike in number of cases then a quick resolution, where as host to host has a gradual increase and a much longer tapering process (common source resolution 6 days host to host resolution >12 days)
  12. what are formulas for morbidity and mortality?
    • morbidity = incidence/total pop.
    • mortality = deaths due to disease/ total pop.
  13. what is R0?
    number of infections that one individual causes; varies based on pathogen and mode of transmittance as well as other factors.
  14. what is generation time?
    time from one infected individual to time of next infected individual. (gestation period of disease)
  15. what is MRSA?
    • methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterial pathogen typically skin infections
    • common in healthcare setting
  16. what are MDR-TB, XDR-TB, and TDR-TB
    multi, extensinve and total drug resistant tuberculosis cause by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  17. what are nosocomial infections and what are two common types?
    infections that occur in a healthcare setting; MRSA and Clostridium difficile
  18. How are nosocomial infections generally contracted (infection site or mode of infection)
    • catheter associated bladder infections
    • skin infections from surgical sites
    • lung infections from intubation
    • central line associated bloodstream infections
  19. what is a carrier?
    individuals with asymptomatic or sub-clinical infections (usually chronic) that can expose others to infectious diseases
  20. what is a reservoir?
    places or populations where infectious disease is maintained between outbreaks; they can be inanimate or living organisms
  21. what are direct methods of transfer?
    human-to-human, animal-to-animal, or animal-to-human
  22. what are indirect methods of transmission?
    • vectors: live agents such as ticks
    • fomites: inanimate objects such as toys or bedding
    • vehicles: nonliving sources of pathogens that may infect many individuals (most often food or water)
  23. what is reservoir control?
    monitoring of domestic and wild animals for diseases, (immunizations against rabies)
  24. what is transmission control?
    mosquito control, elimination of water or food contamination and constant monitoring of food and water supply
  25. what are three other measures of spread control (not including reservoir control and transmission control)
    immunizations, quarantine, surveillance
  26. what is a reportable disease?
    an infection that must be reported to local state and CDC
  27. what are the major strep diseases?
    • S. pyogenes
    • S. pneumoniae
  28. what diseases does S. pyogenes cause?
    strep throat, scarlet fever, infectious diseases (necrotizing fasciitis), and rheumatic fever
  29. what diseases does S. pneumonia cause?
    pneumonia, and bacterial meningitis
  30. what is hemolysis?
    the breakdown of red blood cells
  31. what is group A strep?
    most common strep typically pyogenes, causes actual strep throat, also impetigo
  32. what is group B strep?
    agalactiae, common in new borns and can be life threatening, is an issue for preggers, infants, elderly and adults with other illensses
  33. what is the pathogen for leprosy?
    Bacterium leprae
  34. what is another name for leprosy?
    Hansens disease
  35. what is one mode for bacteria to evade the immune system? (mycobacterium)
    invade the immune system macrophage associated with peripheral nerves and respiratory tract
  36. what are the three most common pathogens of bacterial meningitis?
    • Neisseria meningitidis
    • haemophilus influenza (no correlation to influenza virus)
    • Streptococcusmoniae
  37. what is the meninges and why is it such a rich area for infection?
    it is the covering to the brain and spinal cord and it has very little immune protection
  38. what other types of meningitis are there? (aside from bacterial)
    viral and fungal
  39. what is the pathogen for Legionnaires, where does it live, and how is it transmitted?
    Legionella pneumophila, it lives in water storage tanks with air conditioning units (water and soil aquatic habitats), and is transmitted through inhalation of air borne water droplets.
  40. what is antigenic shift?
    segmented RNA genome shuffles two major antigens that are on the surface of the virus envelope
  41. what is influenza, why is it a concern and how is it transmitted?
    it is a virus, it is a concern because of its high rates of mutation, it is zoonotic and is transmitted through the upper reparatory tract through inhalation of droplets from an infected person/animal.
  42. how was a potential outbreak of avian H5N1 in hongkong avoided?
    had an animal carrier in birds, so entire avian populations were eradicated.
  43. explain measles (pathogen, transmission and symptoms)
    viral pathogen, Rubeola virus, infects respiratory tract, symptoms include cough, fever, nasal discharge, and a rash
  44. explain mumps (pathogen, infection site, symptoms)
    Mumps virus, spread by airborne droplets, infects respiratory tract, causes inflammation of salivary glands, and swelling of the neck, spreads throughout the body and can lead to sterility, and encephalitis
  45. Rubella is?
    virus cause by rubella virus, has milder symptoms than measles, infection of fetus can cause still birth, heart eye and brain damage.
  46. what are three viruses that cause the common cold?
    rhinovirus, coronavirus, and adenovirus.
  47. how does the rhinovirus evade the immune system?
    it has many different surface proteins that can be recognized by the immune system defenses (serotypes)
  48. what diseases are caused by varicella-zoster virus?
    chicken pox and shingles (which is an adult form of chicken pox
  49. Hepatitis A transmittance
    person to person or by contaminated foods (shellfish contaminated with sewage)
  50. Hepatitis B transmittance
    blood and body fluids (primarily blood and sexually)
  51. Hepatitis C transmittance
    blood and body fluids
  52. what is the pathogen for syphilis and what are the three stages of syphilis?
    • Treponema pallidum,
    • Primary: chancre sore
    • secondary: skin rash
    • tertiary: latent stage, can last for years, eventually spreads to bone skin and nervous system leads to blindness insanity and death.
  53. explain the infection process of chlamydia
    has extracellular elementary bodies (non replicating infection mode) that enter the cell and differentiate to reticulate bodies that replicate and differentiate back to elementary bodies to explode host cell and move on.
  54. what is the difference of HSV-1 and HSV-2
    HSV-1 is typically cold sores, HSV-2 is typically the STD version.
  55. what is HPV and how is it transmitted?
    Human Papilloma virus, sexually transmitted, results in cervical cancer, genital warts, and cervical neoplasia
  56. what causes the plague and what are its varieties?
    • Pnemonic plague: lung infection can transmit person to person
    • bubonic plague: lymph node infection through skin by fleas
    • septicemic plague: bacterial infection of blood, can be from bubonic or pneumonic plague
  57. what is tularemia and why is it on the CDC list?
    bacterial infection Francisella tularensis, highly virulent 10-50 cells for infection, and is normally found in nature, can be caused by inhalation or vector transmission (wood tick or deer fly)
  58. what are the four highest concern viral hemorrhagic fever, where do they originate (country/reservoir) and what are symptoms.
    Marburg, Lassa VHF, Crimean-Congo, and Ebola (four forma are known) originate from African monkeys, symptoms include bleeding and clotting, damage to retina mucosa and other organs.
  59. what are zoonotic diseases?
    diseases of animal origin transmittable to humans
  60. what is an enzootic disease?
    infectious diseases found only in animal populations
  61. what does epizootic mean?
    it is then animal equivalent of an epidemic in humans
  62. what are vectors
    live agents that transmit diseases
  63. what causes Rocky mountain spotted fever?
    Rickettsia ricketsii, vector is ticks
  64. what causes ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis?
    members of Ehrlichia and Anaplasmosis phagocytophilum vector is also ticks
  65. what causes typhus?
    Rickettsia prowazekii vector is body and head lice
  66. what causes Q-fever?
    Coxiella burnetii transmitted to animals by bug bits and to  humans by infected animal
  67. how do rickettsial pathogens multiply?
    binary fission
  68. what are the vectors for Lyme disease; plague; malaria?
    • deer ticks
    • fleas (rats are reservoir)
    • mosquitos
  69. what pathogen causes Lyme disease?
    Borrelia burgdorferi
  70. what pathogen causes plague?
    Yersinia pestis
  71. what pathogen causes malaria?
    Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae
  72. how do we control malaria?
    mosquito control
  73. what are the three most common bacteria that are responsible for food poisoning?
    Staph aureus, Clostridium perfringes, and Clostridium botulinum
  74. what is STEC and how does it work?
    Shiga toxin producing E. Coli; toxin is an AB toxin and works to stop protein synthesis 90% of all O157;H7 are STEC
  75. what is ETEC and how does it work?
    Enterotoxogenic producing E. Coli, it works by producing one or two similar toxins that cause secretion of excess fluids in the small intestines.
  76. what are inanimate objects that can transmit diseases?
  77. which are true about carriers?
    A: they are infected with diseases
    B: they are showing symptoms
    C: they are primarily women because of increased genetic diversity
    D:they are contagious and can spread diseases
    E: both A and D are true
  78. why are susceptible members of a population protected by herd immunity?
    susceptible members are unlikely to come in contact with an infected member, preventing spread of the disease
  79. deaths due to a disease divided by the total population of individuals is known as?
  80. define quarantine
    preventing movement of infected individuals into a population
  81. define immunization
    vaccinating against disease
  82. define surveillance
    monitoring of disease spread
  83. define reservoir control
    monitoring of animals for diseases
  84. define transmission control
    monitoring food and water supply, control of disease vectors
  85. filamentous hemagglutinin is a bacterial factor that aids what aspect of the virulence of Bordetella pertussis?
  86. Streptococcus pnumoniae is a pathogen that is often a cause of pneumonia and ??
  87. what does the MMR vaccine protect against?
    measles, mumps, and rubella
  88. what influenza subtype is known as avian flu?
  89. the reservoir for the pathogen causing this disease is water storage tanks, air conditioning systems of building, and soil and aquatic habitats.
  90. otidis media in an infection of the ...?
    inner ear
  91. smallpox is caused by ___ virus
  92. this virus causes a disease known commonly as "serum hepatitis"
    Hepatitis B
  93. pneumocystis jiroveci is the most common opportunistic pathogen of victims of AIDS. this pathogen is a ???
    fungal pathogen
  94. what are the three routes of anthrax infections in humans?
    cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation
  95. the disease typhus is caused by this pathogen?
    Rickettsia prowazekii
  96. what animal is the primary reservoir of west nile virus?
Card Set
MMG 301
Final test