1. the xipohid process is at the level of ___
  2. lower coastal margin is at the level of ____
    l2 -l3
  3. the iliac crests are at the level of _____
  4. the ASIS is at the level of ____
    the symphysis pubis is at the same level of -___
    • s1-s2
    • greater trochanter
  5. for an oblique position of the lumbar spine what is the degree of rotation in an RPO
    what side does it visualize
    what is the alternative oblique positioning for this
    • 45 deg
    • right downside zygopophyseal joints
    • 45 deg LAO
  6. what oblique positions view the upside  of the zygo joints and the downside
    • RPO and LPO show the downside
    • LAO and RAO show the upside
  7. in a lumbar oblique radiograph we must align the spine to what and how do we ensure no rotation
    • spine must be align to midline of table
    • ensure no rotation of pelvis and sholders and flex kness for stability
  8. where is the CR for a lumbar oblique radiograph
    • CR perp to IR at L3 at level lower coastal margins 1-2in above the ilica crests
    • and 2 inches medial upside ASIS
  9. accurate 45 deg patient rotation shows what structure in detail
    indicated by open zygo joints and the pedicle (eye of scottie dog) between the midline and anterior aspect of vertebral body
  10. what is the routine projections for lumbar spine and special
    • ap (or pa)
    • obliques (post. or anterior)
    • lateral
    • lateral l5-s1
    • ap axial l5-s1
  11. how do we reduce lordotic curvature in an ap lumbar xray and increase patient comfort
    which position of lumbar spine places the intervertebral spaces more closely parallel diverging xra beams
    • flex knees and hips
    • pa lumber spine
  12. for an ap lumbar spine which size casette can you use
    where would u center for each
    • 14x17 cr at crests
    • 10x12 cr at 1.5 in above crests at l3 (area of lower coastal margin)
  13. where do you center for an ap lumbar spine
    what is the breathing
    • at crests
    • hold your breath expiration
  14. in a lateral position of the lumbar spine we must align the _____ to the midline of the table
    midcoronal plane
  15. in a lateral position of the lumbar spine what is needed to place the spine parallel to the table
    a radiolucent sponge and palpating the spinous processes of the vertebrae
  16. where do we center for an lateral lumbar spine
    what is the breathing
    • cr at level of iliac crests at (l4-l5)
    • hold your breath expxiration
  17. a patient with a wider pelvis and a narrow thorax may require what angle to compensate in lat position of the spine
    5-8 degree caudad angle
  18. where is the cr for a lateral l5-s1 position of lumbar spine
    do we need a sponge if so what is the angle and what structure is parallel to what
    what is the breathing
    • CR 1.5 in inferior to iliac crests and 2 in posterior to ASIS
    • yess support if wide hips angle caudad 5-8 deg
    • parallel to the interiliac plane
    • suspend respiration
  19. when doing lateral projections of the spine lumbar spine lateral sacrum, coccyx and spine what must we consider (2 things)
    what is the position of the legs in these lateral recumbent positions
    • must consider excess scatter b/c of thick body part to compensate close collimation and place a lead mat behind patient
    • legs and knees are flexxed
  20. we must ensure no rotation of what two strcutures when radiographing lumbar later spines
    no rotation of thorax and pelvis
  21. bones of the spinal column are called
    the spinal cord is enclosed in the _____
    • vertbrae
    • spinal canal
  22. the spinal canal ends and starts where
    the spinal cord begins where and ends where
    the region where the spinal cord ends is called the
    • starts base of the skull and ends at distal sacrum
    • starts a medulla oblongata and ends at first lumbar vertebrae
    • conus medullaris
  23. what are intervertebral disks
    tough fibrocartilaginous disks separate the adult vertebrae they are cushion like disks tightly bound to the vertebrae to allow movement and stability of the vertebral column
  24. what r the 5 sections of the vertebrae
    cervical thoracic lumbar sacrum and coccyx
  25. how many vertebrae are there in the child and adult vertebral column
    how many are in the adult and child of the five sections of the vertebral column
    • 33 in child and 26 in adult
    • adult, child:
    • C = 7,7
    • T= 12,12
    • L = 5,5
    • S=1,5
    • Cyx= 1,4
  26. what bones are the strongest of the vertebral column
    lumbar vertbrae
  27. what are the concave and convex parts of the vertebral column
    list them
    • concave = rounded inward depression
    • convex = rounded outward or elevated surface
    • concave = cervical
    • thaoracic = convex
    • lumbar = concave
    • sacral and coccyx curve = convex
  28. after birth the thoracic curvature and the scaral and coccyx curvature are referred to as what
    which is first and second
    primary curves first is thoracic second is sacral
  29. what are the first and second compensatory curves of the vertebral column
    • first cervical curve
    • second lumbar curve
  30. how is the zygapophyseal formed
    joint space btw the inferior articular process of one vertebrae and superior articular procesc of the vertebrae below
  31. describe the structures of the scottie dog produced by a good 45 deg oblique
    • neck = pars interarticularis
    • ear = one superior articular process
    • eye = pedicle
    • nose = transverse process
    • front legs = inferior articular process
  32. what is the intervertebral foramina
    are spaces or openings between pedicles of the inferior and superior notches when two vertebrae are stacked together on each other
  33. the upper and lower surface of the pedicle is the ____
    superior and inferior vertebral notches
  34. lamina of the lumbar vertebrae is called
    what is it
    pars interarticularis bridge that connects superior and inf articular processes
  35. the intervertebral foramina are seen best on what radiograph
    lateral lumbar spine
  36. if you are using a smaller IR how would you center for a lateral and ap lumbar spine
    you ywould center 1.5 in above the crest instead at the level of the crest
  37. lumbar spine:
    RAO oblique shows
    LPO shows
    RPO shows
    RAO shows
    • RAO=left upside zyga joints
    • LPO = downside lt zyga joints
    • RPO = downside rt zyga joints
    • LAO= rt upside zyga joints
  38. what breathing instructions is required for the ap lumbar lumbar lateral oblique lumbar and lateral spine hyper extension and flexion
    suspend respiration on expiration
  39. lordosis:
    abnormal anterior concavity of the lumbar spine
  40. what are intervertebral joints
    disks found between the vertebral bodies thy allow flexibility and movement of vertebral column
  41. in a lateral positon of the lumbar spine and lateral l5-s1 why must we angle the tube
    to keep the tube parallel to the interiliac line and places the sag or convexity of the spine down to open disk space more
  42. what degree of obliquity is best measure to view the zygapophyseal joints at L1-L2 and L5-S1
    • 50 deg for L1-L2
    • 30 deg for L5-S1
  43. how do we reduce lordotic curvature on an ap lumbar spine
    how do we ensure no rotation on an ap lumbar spine
    • flex knees and hips
    • si joint equidistant
  44. spondylolisthesis
    why is it caused
    • involves forward movement in of one vertebrae in relation to another
    • developmental defect in pars articularis (lamina)
  45. Spondylosis
    • is the dissolution of a vertebra such as from aplasia (lack of development) of vert arch and separation of pars interarticularis
    • neck of scottie dog appears broken
  46. spina bifida
    congenital condition in which the posterior aspects of the vertebrae fail to develop thus exposing part of the spinal cord
  47. herniated nucleus pulposus aka
    herniated lumbar disk  is usually due to trauma or improper lifting the inner part of the vertebral disk (nucleus pulposus) protrudes through and presses on a nerve
  48. what is the mobility of the zyga joints and intervertbral joints
    • zyga joints = diarthordial
    • intervertebral disks = amphiarthrodial
  49. which alternative projection of the lumbar spine places the intervertebral spaces more closely parallel to the diverging rays
    pa prone method alternative to the ap
  50. metastases
    primary malignant lesions that spread to distant sites via blood and lymphatics
  51. what is the breathing for an l5 s1 projection
    hold breath on respiration
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