Science chemistry 2

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  1. What is a catalyst ?
    A substance that speeds up reactions with  out being used themselves.
  2. What is the equation for the rat of reaction ?
    RoR= Amount of product used (or formed) / time
  3. Name 4 factors that affect the rate of reaction.
    • Temperature
    • Presence of a catalyst
    • Surface area
    • Concentration
  4. How does temperature affect the rate of reaction?
    the higher the temperature the faster the reaction as there is more energy
  5. How does the presence of a catalyst affect the rate of reaction?
    It speeds up the rate of reaction as it lowers the activation energy
  6. How does surface area affect the rate of reaction?
    The larger the surface area the faster the rate of reaction as more particles are in contact with what they are reacting with.
  7. How does concentration affect the rate of reaction?
    The higher the concentration the faster the rate of reaction as there are more particles to react.(More particles per unit volume so more collisions)
  8. What must particles do to react?
    Be in contact with each other
  9. What is activation energy?
    The minimum amount of energy required for the particles to collide and react
  10. What is an exothermic reaction?
    A reaction the transfers heat to its surroundings
  11. What is an endothermic reaction?
    A reaction that takes in heat from its surroundings
  12. What is the Haber process ?
    The process that combines nitrogen (from the air) and hydrogen (derived mainly from natural gas into ammonia.
  13. What is ammonia used for ?
    • Fertiliser
    • nitric acid
  14. What is the symbol equation for the Haber process?
    N2 + 3H2 ⇆ 2NH3  ⋀H = -92mol-1
  15. Where are the raw materials for The Haber process obtained from?
    • Nitrogen - the air
    • Hydrogen - Methane
  16. Is the Haber process exothermic or endothermic?
  17. What is the compromise with pressure ?
    It is at 200 atmospheres and is chosen on economic grounds as if the pressure used is to high it wold exceed the cost you would get for the ammonia produced
  18. What will happen to pressure according to Chateilier's principle ?
    if you increase the pressure the system will respond favouring the reaction which produces fewer molecules which will cause the pressure to drop again
  19. What is the temperature compimise?
    400c - 450c but it produces a small amount of energy in a short time. It is a compromise as it more ammonia is produced at a lower temperature but it takes too long
  20. What are the conditions for the Haber process?
    • 400c-450c
    • 200 atmospheres pressure
    • iron catalyst
  21. Name the three acids we need to know and their formula
    • Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
    • Sulphuric acid H2SO4
    • Nitric acid HNO3
  22. Name the three alkalis that we need to know and their formula.
    • Ammonia (NH3)
    • sodium hydroxide (Na OH)
    • Nitric acid (HNO3)
  23. What is a alkali?
    • A soluble base
    • All alkalis are bases, not all bases are alkalis
    • other bases tend to take he form of metal oxide
  24. What is neutralisation?
    • An acid plus a base(alkali)
    • They cancel each other out therefore become neutral
    • You always get a salt and water
  25. Is neutralisation exothermic or endothermic?
  26. Name three ways of making salts
    • Acid + base → salt and water
    • Acid + Metal → Salt + Hydrogen gas
    • Acid + Metal carbonate → Salt + Carbon dioxide + Water
  27. An example of Acid + base → salt and water
    • Hydrochloric acid + Sodium hydroxide →sodium chloride +water
    • HCL (aq) +NaOH (aq) → NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)
  28. An example of Acid + Metal → Salt + Hydrogen gas
    • Sulphuric acid + Zinc → Zinc Sulphate + hydrogen
    • H2SO4 (aq) +Zn(s) → Zn SO4 (aq) + H2 (g)
  29. An example of Acid + Metal carbonate → Salt + Carbon dioxide + Water
    • Nitric acid + Calcium carbonate → Calcium nitrate + Carbon dioxide + Water
    • 2HNO3 + CaCO3 → Ca (NO3)2 + CO2 (g) +H2O (l)
  30. Potassium hydroxide + nitric acid
    Name the salt
    Word equation
    Balanced symbol equation
    • Potassium nitrate
    • Potassium hydroxide + nitric acid → potassium nitrate and water
    • KOH + HNO3 → KNO3 +H2O
  31. Magnesium +sulphuric acid
    Name the salt
    Word equation
    Balanced symbol equation
    •  Magnesium Sulphate
    • Magnesium +sulphuric acid→ Magnesium Sulphate + Hydrogen
    • Mg + H2SO4→  MgSO4 + H2
  32. Copper carbonate + Hydrochloric acid
    Name the salt
    Word equation
    Balanced symbol equation
    • Copper chloride
    • Copper
    • carbonate + Hydrochloric acid→ Copper chloride + Carbon dioxide  +Water
    • CuCO3 +
    • 2HCl→ CuCl2 +CO2+H2O
  33. Copper + Sulphuric acid
    Name the salt
    Word equation
    Balanced symbol equation
    • Does not
    • react
    • Copper +
    • Sulphuric acid→ Copper + Sulphuric acid
    • Does not work because copper is less reactive
    • than hydrogen
  34. What is a precipitation reaction?
    Reacting two soluble salts to get an insoluble salt
  35. Give an example of a precipitation reaction.
    Pb(NO3)2(aq) +2KI(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3 (aq)
  36. How do you separate PbI2 from the mixture?
    Filter it
  37. What are mixtures with things that can't dissolve called?
  38. What is the formula of silver chloride?
    Ag+ + I- = AgI
  39. What  compound is electrolysis used on ?
    Only ionic
  40. What is electrolysis?
    splitting up a compound using electricity
  41. What two states can electrolysis occur in? and Why?
    • Molten
    • Aqueous
    • as they both allow ions to move
  42. What is the charge of a Cat ion?
  43. What is the charge of an anion?
  44. What is the charge of the anode?
  45. what is the charge of an cathode?
  46. What ion does the cathode attract?
  47. What ion does the anode attract?
  48. Electrolysis diagram
    Image Upload 1
  49. What is the ionic compound used in electrolysis ?
  50. Where do the metals and Non-metals g in electrolysis?
    • if molten
    • Non-metals at the anode and metals at the cathode
  51. What is the word for gives off bubbles?
  52. What happens when the metal being electrolysed is more reactive than hydrogen in an aqueous state?
    Hydrogen is given  off at the anode as the reactive metal is less likely to be on its own.
  53. Electrolysis for Copper chloride
    Image Upload 2
  54. Electrolysis diagram for Sodium chloride
    Image Upload 3
  55. When purifying Copper what is left at the anode?
    Anode slime
  56. diagram for purifying copper
    Image Upload 4
  57. How to write a half equation?
    1. Write the formulae of the reactant and product.

    Cl- → Cl2

    2. Adjust the number of ions, if needed.

    2Cl- → Cl2

    3. Count the number of charges. Add enough electrons so that both sides have the same total number of charges.

    2Cl- → Cl2 2e-
  58. How to balance a half equation?
    Al3+ + e– → Al

    Al3+ + 3e– → Al

    Cl2+ + e– → Cu

    Cu2+ + 2e– → Cu

    H+ + e– → H2

    2H+ + 2e– → H2

    Br- → Br2 + e-

    2Br- → Br2 + 2e-

    O2- → O2 + e-

    2O2 → O2 + 4e-
Card Set
Science chemistry 2
second part
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