Immigration Midterm

The flashcards below were created by user Ninimew on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. According to Ravenstein's Laws, female migrants generally move a __ distance.
  2. What is the process of absorption and what law does this fall into?
    People immediately surrounding a rapidly growing town move into it and the gaps they leave are filled by migrants from more distant areas, and so on until the attractive force (pull factors) is spent; Ravenstein's Laws
  3. According to Ravenstein's Laws, each migration flow produces a compensating __.
    counter flow
  4. According to Ravenstein's law, long distance migrants go to __.
    big cities, great centers of commerce and industry
  5. Which group is less migratory? natives of towns or those from rural areas? males or females? What law is this?
    natives of towns, males; Ravenstein's
  6. Are families or young adults more likely to make international moves? What law is this?
    young adults; Ravenstein's
  7. According to Ravenstein's Laws, what is the main cause of migration?
    economic factors
  8. Lee's Theory deals with
    factors associated with origin and destination; push and pull factors
  9. Push factors
    things that are unfavorable about the area that one lives in. ex. not enough jobs, few opportunites
  10. Pull factors
    things that attract one to another area. ex. job opportunities, better living conditions
  11. Who was George Ravenstein?
    a Fellow of the Royal Geographic Society of London, looked at the British Census of 1881 and presented a paper in March 1885 called the Laws of Migration and presented it to the Royal Statistic Society
  12. According to Ravenstein's laws, distance is __ related to migration
  13. According to Ravenstein's laws, migration occurs in __
    stages (don't immediately go from rural to urban: small village > small town > big town > big city)
  14. According to Ravenstein's laws, the greater the distance covered by movers, the greater __
    the industrialization at destination
  15. According to Ravenstein's laws, when migrants travel a long distance, it is a sign that __
    they are moving for economic reasons and the place is well developed.
  16. According to Ravenstein's laws, the greater the technology and level of development in a country, the greater __
    roads and railways and the number of migrants
  17. In between the push and pull factors, there are __
    intervening obstacles (impediments) such as distance and tough immigration laws
  18. What are relative factors?
    neutral factors
  19. Hypothesis on Volume of Migration
    • varies within a territory with the degree of diversity of areas included in that territory and diversity of people
    • related to the difficulty of surmounting the intervening obstacles
    • varies with fluctuations in the economy
    • Unless severe checks and balances are imposed, both volume and rate of migration tend to increase with time.
  20. According to the hypothesis on Characteristics of Movers, migration is __
  21. According to the hypothesis on Characteristics of Movers, migrants responding primarily to plus factors at __ tend to be positively selected.
  22. According to the hypothesis on Characteristics of Movers, migrants responding primarily to minus factors at __ tend to be negatively selected.
    origin; where the minus factors are overwhelming to entire population groups, they may not be selected at all
  23. According to the hypothesis on Characteristics of Movers, taking all migrants together, selection tends to be __
    bimodal: If we plot characteristics of total migrants along a continuum ranging from poor to excellent, we often get a J-shaped or U-shaped curve (e.g. characteristics having to do with education or occupation)
  24. According to the hypothesis on Characteristics of Movers, the degree of positive selection increases with the difficulty of __
    the intervening obstacles
  25. According to the hypothesis on Characteristics of Movers, migration propensity is related to __
    the stages of the life cycle
  26. According to the hypothesis on Characteristics of Movers, the characteristics of migrant tend to be __ between the characteristics of the population at destination
  27. According to the Neoclassical Economic (Macro) Theory, characteristics of nations and regions promote international migration flows in response to
    differences in demand for labor
  28. Theory that focuses on individuals acting in their best interest; international migration a result of such behavior
    Neoclassical Economic (Micro) Theory
  29. According to the Neoclassical Economic (Micro) Theory, people move where __
    they can maximize returns to their invested human capital
  30. According to the New Household Economics Theory, migration is a __ behavior.
    family and group; International migration occurs due to rational acts of family members deciding what is in the best interest (not so much of individuals), but of the family as a whole
  31. According to the Dual Labor Market Theory, international migration is a result of __
    the intrinsic labor needs of modern industrial societies. There is chronic and unavoidable need for foreign (guest) workers in receiving countries.
  32. According to the Dual Labor Market Theory, desire for immigration and immigrants has arisen due to __
    bifurcation (division in 2) of the economies of industrial nations
  33. According to World Systems Theory, international migration stems from __
    the structure of the world market that has emerged gradually since the beginning of European colonialism expansion into less developed nations
  34. According to World Systems Theory, what caused the world system whereby nations are in core, periphery, or semi-periphery status?
    foreign exploitation of raw materials along with foreign capital penetration; status based upon their location in the global systems of capital
  35. According to World Systems Theory, what are the processes by which international migration occur?
    Core nations entered into periphery nations to search for raw materials and to export poor nations. In this process, the core nations brought about disruptions or dislocations to the developing world.
  36. core nations
    nations with capital, money for investment, are highly industrialized, control the global economy, especially global finance
  37. periphery nations
    nations that lack capital, depend on the core for investment, export primary products to the Core (ginger, cocoa, coffee, etc)
  38. What are the consequences of political intervention (from core to periphery countries) and how does this effect migration?
    Governments in core countries often act to protect corporate interests in the periphery. Thus, if those interests are threatened, repression occurs, which leads to migration.
  39. What are the consequences of cultural and political ties between core and periphery countries ? How does this effect migration?
    • Individuals of periphery countries who have cultural and political ties with a core country are likely to migrate to the core country.
    • ex. India and Britain: India adopted the English language, education, etc
  40. Visa A1-A3
    representatives of foreign governments
  41. Visa B1
    visitor for business
  42. Visa B3
    Visitor for pleasure
  43. Visa F1
    student in the U.S. engaging in a full course of study; may be employed in the school
  44. Visa F2
    Student in the U.S who is a dependent of a F1 Visa holder; not permitted to work in the U.S.
  45. Visa M1
    vocational student; may be employed for training after studies for a limited time
  46. U.S. Dept of State
    deals with international relations and implementing foreign policy, including protecting and assisting U.S. citizens living or traveling abroad and assisting U.S. businesses in the international marketplace
  47. U.S. Dept of Labor
    deals with occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance, re-employment services
  48. U.S. Dept of Homeland Security
    created in response to 9/11; protects within and outside its borders against terrorism and other domestic emergencies and natural disasters; also absorbed the Immigration and Naturalization Service: borders and customs
Card Set
Immigration Midterm
Show Answers