Sociology Final

  1. anticipatory socialization
    processes of socialization in which a person rehearses for future statuses (shop, leadership)
  2. beliefs
  3. values
    ideas, part of norms. the way things should go. often are translated into laws (ex. every child by law must get an education). change over time
  4. Collective conscience: Durkheim
    shared beliefs and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society. This is a component in suicide, apparently.
  5. Egoism: Durkheim
    lacking ties to social groups
  6. Anomie: Durkheim
    normlessness due to rapid change
  7. symbolic ethnicity
    only relevant at specific times and doesn't impact daily life (St. Patrick's day)
  8. Situational ethnicity
    deliberate ethnic identity that can be displayed or concealed depending on usefulness
  9. Role strain
    individuals find expectations of a single status incompatible (a lawyer defending a child molester)
  10. Role conflict
    conflicting expectations stemming from occupying 1 or more statuses at the same time (a dad who's a football coach and his son wants to be the quarterback but he sucks at football)
  11. sex
    biological chromosomes/genitals/hormones
  12. gender
    social construct - behavior based on sex
  13. horizontal mobility
    moving between statuses within the same strata
  14. vertical mobility
    moving up and down social strata
  15. institutional discrimination
    injustice incorporated into structures. workings and dealings of institutions
  16. George Mead's socialization of children
    socialization begins as children. self is formed when we distinguish ourselves from others
  17. Cooly's looking-glass self
    shaping your self-concepts based on your understanding of how others perceive you
  18. ethnocentrism
    judge behavior of other groups by your own groups standards
  19. cultural relativism
    looks at behavior of other groups in terms of their values, beliefs, and motives
  20. expressive ties
    emotionally invested and committed to other people
  21. instrumental ties
    formed when we cooperate with other people to achieve some goal
  22. in-group
    a group with which we identify. this provides us with our social identity
  23. out-group
    dont identify with them. use words like "they" for them. sometimes we feel competition or disgust towards them
  24. status
    a position that a person occupies in a social structure (policeman, marital status, editor of a magazine)
  25. master status
    key status that carries primary weight in a person's interactions and relationships with others (race, class, gender, age, disability)
  26. roles
    set of expectations that define the behavior that people view as appropriate or inappropriate for the occupant of a status
  27. ethnicity
    distinct cultural norms and values of a social group. shared history, religion, and culture, language, ancestry, destiny
  28. race
    externally imposed social categorization. based on perceived biological differences
  29. mores
    informal or formal norms. basically values. a lot of these are changed into laws (abortion, fur-wearing, etc)
  30. taboo
    societies' most important social norms (incest). thought of violating a taboo is "repugnant"
  31. prejudice
    an unjustified or incorrect attitude towards an individual based on that person's membership of a social group
  32. discrimination
    the behavior or actions towards an individual or group of people on the basis of sex/race/social class
  33. primary group
    2 or more people who enjoy direct, intimate, cohesive relationship. critical to socialization
  34. secondary group
    2 or more people in impersonal relationship that come together for a specific purpose
  35. socialization process
    process by which children and adults learn from others
  36. Social stratification elements: Weber
    3 distinct elements of class are wealth, power, and prestige
  37. social stratification
    structured inequality between groups. may be based on gender, race, religion, age, etc
  38. material culture examples
    american flag, police uniform
  39. non-material culture examples
    laws, mores, and values
  40. sociological imagination: C. Wright Mills
    Made to describe the type of insight offered by sociology. He suggests that we examine our personal difficulties both in terms of broader social and historical events. Social and historical forces will provide external constraints that will impact people's lives
  41. sociology
    the study of society, social institutions, and social relationships
  42. cultural universals
    patterned and recurrent aspects of life that occur in all known societies. ways of dealing with cultural universals are not universal
  43. intergenerational mobility
    mobility between generations (ex. US says kids should do better than their parents)
  44. intragenerational mobility
    changing status and rank within one's lifetime (has nothing to do with parents or children)
  45. Durkheim: quantitative or qualitative research?
    quantitative: sociologists should follow research model established by natural sciences. collective conscious, institutions and integration, and suicide.
  46. Weber: quantitative or qualitative research?
    qualitative: social sciences should go beyond natural sciences model. Socialization based on wealth, power, and prestige. Inconvenient facts
  47. Marx
    looked at conflict between proletariat and bourgeoisie. studied class conflict. class was determined by one's relation to the means of production
Card Set
Sociology Final
Sociology final flash cards