History-Chapter 23

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  1. Estates-General
    an assembly of representatives from all 3 estates
  2. First Estate
    catholic clergy- 1% of pop.- own 10% of land, pay few taxes
  3. Second Estate
    rich nobles- 2% of pop.- own 20% of land
  4. Third Estate
    97% of citizens, commoners. Few privileges, pay heavy taxes
  5. Louis XVI
    married to Marie Antionette- King of France- nearly doubled France's debt. taxed estates to make up for the money loss.
  6. Marie Antoinette
    Married to Louis XVI- Queen of France. interfered with gov. Gave Louis XVI poor advice. originally member of the royal family from Austria so was disliked. AKA: "Madame Deficit"
  7. Old Regime
    Social and Political system in France during 1770's.
  8. National Assembly
    3rd Estate delegates who pass laws and reforms in the name of French people. Suggested by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes. Ended absolute power, started representatives gov. New constitution for France.
  9. Tennis Court Oath
    3rd Estate delegates found themselves locked out of their meeting room. They broke down a door to an indoor tennis court, pledging to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution.
  10. Great Fear
  11. attacks by peasants; taking place across France.
  12. Legislative Assembly
  13. had power to create laws and to approve or reject declarations of wars. King still held executive power to enforce laws. New legislative body created by National Assembly in new constitution. Replaced National Assembly.
  14. emigres
    nobles and others who had fled France, hoped to undo the Revolution and restore the Old Regime.
  15. sans-culottes
    wore reg. trousers. Parsian workers and small shopkeepers wanted the Revolution to bring even greater changes to France.
  16. left-wing
    radicals- liberal opposed the idea of a monarchy and wanted sweeping changes in how the gov was run.
  17. centrists
    wanted some gov. changes but not as many as the radicals
  18. right wing
    conservative- idea  and of a limited monarchy and wanted few changes in gov.
  19. Maximilien Robespierre
    Jacobin leader, rules France for a year. caused the Great Fear
  20. guilotine
    beheadings, "more humane"
  21. National Convention
    abolished monarchy and declared France a republic, governing body.
  22. George Danton
    a lawyer known for his devotion to the rights of Paris's poor people. Beheaded by Maximilien. "Show my head, its well worth seeing."
  23. coup d' etat
    seizure of power, "blow to the state" Napoleon did this.
  24. plebiscite
    vote of the people
  25. lycees
    gov. run public schools to train officials
  26. Napoleon Bonaparte
    born in Corsica, attends military school, joins army, gave himself a title. wanted to be like Julius Caesar.
  27. concordat with the church
    agreement with the pope restoring Catholicism in France.
  28. Battle of Trafalgar
    Napoleon's only major war lose. took place in SW coast of Spain.
  29. Napoleon's Three Mistakes
    • 1.) Blockade of Great Britain
    • 2.) Invasion of Portugal
    • 3.) Invasion of Russia
  30. guerillas
    bands of Spanish peasant struck. French armies in Peninsular War
  31. Hundred Days
    • 1.) Escapes Elba...
    • 2.) Loses Battle of Waterloo
    • 3.) Shipped to St. Helena (dies 5 1/2 years later possibly from cancer)
  32. scorched-earth policy
    Russians burned grain fields and slaughtering livestock so to leave nothing behind for the enemy.
  33. continental system
    economic plan to strengthen Europe, weaken Britain, blockade of Great Britain
  34. Louis XVIII
    • Louis XVII's son, became emperor after Napoleon, who was not welcomed
  35. Battle of Waterloo
    Napoleon attacked British for a whole day. Then Prussia came from other side. 2 days later Napoleon's army gave up.
  36. Elba
    Napoleon gets sent here.
  37. Czar Alexander I
    Signed the Holy Alliance.
  38. Congress of Vienna
    series of meetings that reshape Europe.
  39. Holy Alliance
    agreement signed by Euperor Francis I of Austria and King Fredrick William III of Prussia that pledged to base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat the forces of Revolution.
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History-Chapter 23
History Chapter 23
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