Bio 2 Final Quiz

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  1. Greenhouse gases
    • Water vapor - short cycle; doesn’t build up
    • Methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons - effective in trapping heat, but less common
    • CO2 - very long cycle; concentration is building up
  2. Potential problems of iron fertilization
    • Stimulate the wrong species - they could provide the wrong nutrients
    • Cause algal boom and bust, using up oxygen in water and killing other species (runaway effect)
    • Decaying algae and other organisms generate methane
    • Stimulated phytoplankton could use up nutrients necessary for other species
    • Algal bloom floats, causing shading of shallow areas that depend on light
  3. Acting agents of water/hydrologic cycle
    • Evaporation
    • Condensation
    • Precipitation
    • Infiltration
    • Discharge
  4. Marine record of oxygen isotope ratios -> paleotemperature
    Higher concentration of oceanic O18 - cooler paleotemperature
  5. Steps of geological (slow) carbon cycle
    • Rain reacts with atmospheric CO2 to form carbonic acid
    • Carbonic acid weathers silicate rocks
    • Erosion carries carbonic acid, bicarbonate, ions to ocean
    • Carbon-containing sediment (including invertebrate skeletons) deposits on ocean floor
    • Carbon-containing sediment subducts and melts
    • Volcanoes release CO2
  6. Carbon cycle = automatic thermostat for Earth
    • Higher temperatures -> more rain/plants -> more CO2 absorbed out of atmosphere
    • Lower temperatures -> less rain/plants -> CO2 can accumulate in atmosphere
  7. Goldilocks principle
    Venus is too hot with a very thick atmosphere and Mars is too cold with no atmosphere; Earth is just right
  8. Biological (fast) carbon cycle
    • Photosynthesis draws CO2 out of the atmosphere
    • Respiration returns CO2 to atmosphere
  9. Astronomical cycles -> natural, predictable fluctuations on the carbon cycle
    • Axial precession -> wobble of Earth’s axis
    • Axial tilt -> 22.1-24.5 degrees from vertical; affects how Sun’s rays reach the Earth
    • Orbital eccentricity -> shape of Earth’s orbit around Sun changes from circular to elliptical every 413,000 years
  10. Human activities that disrupt carbon cycle
    • Deforestation/logging
    • Burning fossil fuels
    • Cement production
    • Cleared lang - agriculture
    • Fighting brush/forest fires
  11. Effect of increased CO2 levels in atmosphere
    • Rising sea level
    • More acidic ocean due to dissolved CO2 (changes ocean density)
  12. Adaptive bleaching hypothesis
    • If the loss of Zooxanthellae occurs due to environmental change, the host organism forms a new symbiotic relationship with a different type of Zooxanthellae
    • These new endosymbionts are believed to be better adapted to the new environment
  13. Ways corals can erode
    • Waves
    • Bio-erosion -> Bering sponges (produce acid which hurts CaCO3 skeleton) and point fish (tear off coral and eat it)
  14. Holocene stability
    • CO2 levels
    • Temperature
    • Ocean chemistry
    • Sea levels
  15. How animal populations can respond to climate disturbances
    • Adaption
    • Move to more favorable locations
    • Extinction
  16. Direct and indirect factors for poleward shift of organisms
    • Direct -> each species can survive/breed only in its characteristic thermal tolerance range
    • Indirect -> temperature may limit species ranges by influencing distribution of other species on which a given species depend
  17. Tropical mountains and climate change
    • Tropical species more sensitive to warming
    • Disease-carrying species are finding better homes amongst humans
  18. Advantages of asexual reproduction
    • Don’t have to find a mate
    • Ensures all the genes are yours; more genes in next generation
    • Correct fit to circumstances
    • More efficient
    • Exploit a given habitat/resource
  19. Fission and fragmentation
    • Crawl apart and break, forming two
    • Starfish - if detached arm has part of central disk, can regenerate
  20. Budding
    • Modular unit of organism that is grown, then sep. from original body
    • Starfish larvae - budding happens in this stage
    • Bull kelp - bud for territory -> can switch into sexual selection
  21. Parthenogenesis
    • Development of offspring from unfertilized eggs
    • Dapnia - hatch out of winter eggs
    • Can switch to sexual selection
    • Komodo dragon (not storing male sperm) - the only ones that develop are male
  22. Why does sexual selection exist?
    • Allows potentially beneficial mutations to appear against different genetic backgrounds
    • More genetic diversity
    • Conditions are always changing; what was a successful phenotype in this generation may not be successful in a different place/time
    • Ability to control heritage
  23. Disadvantages of sexual selection
    • Need to get 2 of them together
    • Can be dangerous (vulnerable to predators)
  24. External fertilization
    • Timing and proximity still matter
    • Energy = finite; tradeoff between number of gametes and how much energy is invested in each one
  25. Why are specialists more vulnerable to extinction?
    • Random natural disasters
    • Competition (intra-species)
  26. Why do insects bother to pollinate plants?
    • Plants provide enticement in source of pollen or nectar (sugar substance with amino acids and proteins)
    • Really hard to get anywhere else in the world
  27. Animal traits shaped by evolution with plants
    • Hummingbirds - small size, ability to hover, shape of beak 
    • Long flower-shaped beaks
    • Long flower-shaped tongues
    • Pollen basket - pocket carry back pollen to hive to eat
  28. Plant traits shaped by evolution with animals
    • Attracting the right pollinator with the right color
    • Precise, spring-loaded pollination with a backup plan
    • Chemicals (smells) to attract pollinators
  29. Two main forces of evolution that drive speciation
    • Selection
    • Drift
  30. Great American Interchange
    Mixing species can cause biodiversity loss
  31. Process of invasion
    • Have to have certain traits that make them attractive to certain environments that allow them to moved around
    • Need to establish breeding population
    • Has to spread beyond site of introduction, moving into novel environments (bold and exploratory organisms)
  32. Which traits are key to invasion success
    • Ability to disperse is key
    • Niche
  33. House sparrow invasive abilities
    • Dietary breadth
    • Diversity of habitats
    • High reproductive rates
    • Bold and exploratory behavior
  34. Kenyan sparrows and house sparrows differences
    • Large brain size
    • Behavioral flexibility
  35. Guam - island of the snake
    • Brown tree snake
    • Rapidly disperse; flexible diet
    • Drove most animals to extinction except island swiftlet (smooth cave walls)
  36. Hawaii: Guava, pigs, mosquitos
    • Pigs help guava grow
    • Eat native plants -> troughs fill with water -> mosquitos breed
    • I’iwi Honeycreeper v. susceptible to mosquitos
  37. Rat Island - Alaska
    • Brown rat preys on seabirds 
    • Chemicals that kill brown rats by internal bleeding
  38. Macquarie
    • Rats came -> cats placed
    • Cats killed songbirds and other birds
    • Rabbits introduced as game; drove vegetation to low numbers -> island erosion
    • Weasels and Myxoma virus introduced to kill rabbits
    • Cats started preying on birds
    • Hunting, trapping, and dogs to control birds
    • Myxoma-resistant rabbits coming back
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Bio 2 Final Quiz
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