What does a bacterial cell contain?(10 points)
- 1. Cell wall
- 2. Cell membrane
- 3. Plasmid DNA
- 4. Chromosomal DNA
- 5. Flagellum (not always present)
- 6. Ribosomes
- 7. Nucleoid
- 8. Cytoplasm
- 9. Capsule
- 10. Pili
What does a yeast cell contain? (6 things)
- 1. Cell membrane
- 2. Vacuole
- 3. Cytoplasm
- 4. Nucleus
- 5. Food storage granule
- 6. Cell wall
What are the parts of an animal cell?(5)
- 1. Nucleus
- 2. Cytoplasm
- 3. Cell membrane
- 4. Mitochondria
- 5. Ribosomes
What are the parts of a plant cell?(8)
- 1. Nucleus
- 2. Cytoplasm
- 3. Cell membrane
- 4. Cell wall
- 5. Chloroplasts
- 6. Permanent vacuole
- 7. Ribosomes
- 8. Mitochondria
What is the function of a nucleus?
Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell.
What is the function of cytoplasm?
Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes.
What is the function of a cell membrane?
Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
What is the function of mitochondria?
Most energy is released by respiration here.
What is the function of ribosomes?
Protein synthesis happens here.
What is the function of a cell wall?
Strengthens the cell.
What is the function of chloroplasts?
Contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.
What is the function of a permanent vacuole?
Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid.
What is in a virus cell?(4)
- 1. Envelope
- 2. Protein coat
- 3. Nucleic acid
- 4. Spikes
Where is a root hair cell found?
Close to the tip of growing roots.
What is the function of a root hair cell?
Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil
What is the adaptation of a root hair cell?
- 1. Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area.
- 2. Large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water from soil to cell through osmosis.
Where is a fat cell found?
In the body when an animal eats more than it needs, it is where the body stores it.
What is special about a fat cell?
It has a large fat store so animals can store food when there is a shortage of food
Where is the cone cell found?
In the retina
Why is a cone cell specialised?
- 1. Enables the detection of colour because the outer cell contains a chemical (visible pigment that changes in coloured light)
- 2.Has a specialised synapse that connects to the optic nerve.
What is the function of a sperm cell?
To fertilise the egg
Why is a sperm cell specialised?
The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.
What is the function of a red blood cell?
Contain haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells.
Why is a red blood cell specialised?
Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. Shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. No nucleus, so the whole cell is full of haemoglobin.
What is diffusion?
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
What are the factors affecting diffusion?
- 1. Density
- 2. Temperature
- 3. Concentration of substance
- 4. Pressure
How does density affect diffusion?
The higher the density the slower the rate of diffusion?
How does temperature affect diffusion?
The higher the temperature the faster the rate of diffusion.
How does concentration affect the rate of diffusion?
The higher the concentration the faster the rate of diffusion.
How does pressure affect diffusion?
The higher the pressure the faster the rate of diffusion.
Why is a cell membrane Selectively Permeable?
So the cell can only let in what it needs and so it doesn't die
Put these in order of smallest to largest.
- Organ system
What are the organs in the Digestive system?
- Gall bladder
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
What does the inner surface of the digestive system contain? and why?
Tiny folds and thousands of fingers(Villi) so there is a large surface area for food molecules to pass through.
Why do villi contain tiny blood vessels?
To transport absorbed food molecules
What organs are in the Circulatory System?
What are the specialist cells in the circulatory system?
Red and white blood cells
Describe a white blood cell?
Have different shapes and have nuclei help to defend against pathogens
What are Platelets?
Small pieces of cell that have no nucleus and help to clot blood around a cut.
What are the organs in the Excretory system?
What is A?
What is B?
What is C?
What is the job of the respiratory system?
To get air in and out your body.
What is ventilation?
Bringing a fresh supply of oxygen in the body and taking carbon dioxide out.
What are the organs in the respiratory system?
What is A?
What is C?
What is D?
What is E?
What is F?
What is G?
What is H?
What organs are in the Nervous System?
What cells are in the Nervous System?
What tissues are in the Nervous System?
What is tissue?
A group of similar cells that all work together to carry out a particular function.
What is the job of connective tissue?
Binds structures together providing support and a protection framework
What is the shape and structure of connective tissue?
- Loose padding under skin
- Bone connective tissues made of hard extracellular matrix.
How has it adapted to carry out function?(4)
- Fills space
- stores fat
- produces blood cells to fight infection
- helps repair
What does glandular tissue do?
Secrets useful substances
What is the shape and structure of glandular tissue?
Contains small vesides of useful substances
What is the job of muscular tissue?
Use energy to make them shorter(contract)
Name three types of muscular tissue.
What is the structure of muscular tissue?
Long thin (extendable) cells that are capable of contraction most abundant in animals
How has muscular tissue adapted?
Contains may mitochondria to provide energy
What is the job of Epithelial tissue?
- Lines the surface of the body
- Helps protect against injury, fluid loss and microorganisms
What is the shape and structure of Epithelial tissue?
- Covers the whole body surface in closely packed coils
- one layer covers then internal and one layer covers the external surfaces
How has epithelial tissue adapted?
It has small hairs called CILIA which trap dust and microbes.
Why does glandular tissue have many ribosomes?
to manufacture proteins
What are the major organs in a plant?
What is the function of the roots?
to absorb water and mineral ions from the soil.
What are mineral ions needed for in a plant?
What is the function of Epidermis tissue?
To protect the cells underneath it and stops it losing too much water.
What is the function of Phloem tissue?
To carry sugars away that have been made in Photosynthesis.
What is 6C02 +6H2O=6O2+C6H12O6?
The equation for photosynthesis
What happens in the Mesophyll tissue?
What is Glucose stored as?
What does CO2 diffuse through?
Stomata(more on the underside)
What does Stomata to control the amount of carbon dioxide entering and leaving?
Two guard cells that close and open
Why is there no photosynthesis at night?
because the Stomata closes at night as there is no light
What does spongy mesophyll do?
It has air spaces to allow CO2 diffuse easily.
How does water get from the roots to the leaves?
through xylem tissue
What are Roots, Stems and leaves?
Name four tissues found in a plant.
What is the job of Epidermis tissue?
Stops pathogens and water loss
What is the job of mesophyll?
where photosynthesis takes place
What is the job of Xylem tissue?
brings water and minerals from roots
What is the job of Phloem tissue?
Carries sugars made in photosynthesis away
Where did the energy in glucose come from originally?
Name the process that releases energy from glucose.
Name two different substances that plants use for storing energy?
Name two substances that plants use for building new cells?
What is glucose?
sugar/carbohydrate makes many substances
What is starch?
Carbohydrate good for storing energy
What is cellulose?
Carbohydrate for making the cell wall
What are fats and oils used for?
What are enzymes, the cell membrane and cytoplasm made from?
Carbohydrates, fats and oils and proteins are all made from Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. But what else is needed to make protein?
Are starch and fats and oils soluble or insoluble?
Why is starch good?
can be converted back to glucose easily
Why are fats and oils better than starch at storing energy?
they can store more per gram
What is glucose transported through? (tissue)
Why are plants short on nitrates unable to grow?
Cannot make protein so no new cell
Why is energy stored as starch instead of glucose?
it is insoluble
What are physical factors?
Something that influences a living organism that is caused by non-living factors
What are Biotic factors?
Something that influences a living organism that is caused by other living organisms
Name four physical factors that affecting where an organism can live.
- Water availability
- Amount of light
- Oxygen and carbon dioxide
Name three biotic factors that affecting where an organism can live.
- Nutrient availability
Describe biological sampling using a quadrat.
Quadrats are placed randomly in an area and the number of species is counted and then is repeated in different areas
How do you work out the number of a species in a quadrat? Two ways.
- Count the number of each species
- Estimate the percentage of the area in the quadrat that each species occupies.
- Then find the mean
What numbers should be counted?
1,2 and 3
What would you do if you wanted to find how species change as the habitat changes?
You use a transect line
How do you use a transect line?
Place quadrats along the line an equal distance
How many times should you test using a quadrat?
at least 10
Give an advantage and a disadvantage of using a large quadrat.
- AD: more likely to have a representative sample of all the organisms in the area inside
- DIS: More differcult to count all the organisms or make an estimate.