Final Exam

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  1. Frank Lloyd Wright
    (1867-1959) an American architect who proposed ideas of organic architecture. His work was an inspiration for designers to move towards a rectilinear approach of spatial organization. Wright designed all aspects of building, from stained glass to fabrics and furniture.
  2. Vienna Secession
    • a group of young Austrian artists who broke away from the
    • mainstream artist association due to lack of inclusion of foreign artist; they
    • preferred linear art styles.
  3. Coated stock
    paper treated with a fine spray to add a slick shine; used for Ver Sacrum Magazine.
  4. Embossing
    raised relief designs on paper, pushed in from the verso side of the page.
  5. Peter Behrens
    German architect, artist, and designer: the first “industrial design" developed 'visual identification' programs using the grid system to structure space.
  6. Industrial Design
    The design of manufactured products
  7. Type: Face, font, family, foundry
    • FOUNDRY: the designer and/or manufacturer of sets of type
    • FAMILY:
    • Related typefaces from the same foundry.
    • FACE:
    • The style of the type (regular, medium, bold, etc.) 
    • FONT:
    • A typeface at a specific size.
  8. graphic identity program
    the consistent and standardize use of a typeface, logo, color, and layout style.
  9. logo
    a graphic representation of corporate or business identity
  10. cubism
    art style pioneered by Picasso, presenting space and form as though seen through a prism; multiple views of a single object are presented simultaneously.
  11. Pablo Picasso
    Spanish painter (1881-1973), genius of 20th Century art; developed many personal styles of expression, including cubism.
  12. Futurism
    20th century style of modern art that focused on representing the speed, motion, and movement of modern urban life.
  13. Dada
    early 20th century movement that claimed to be anti-art and had a strong negative and destructive element; focused on randomness and accidental effects.
  14. Marcel Duchamp
    the most prominent visual artist of the dada movement;exhibited a urinal as art, presented oddly juxtaposed objects as "ready-made" works of art.
  15. Photomontage
    the technique of manipulating found photographic images to create jarring juxtapositions and chance associations.
  16. Surrealism
    art movement that began in the early 1920's; imagery focused on dreamlike subjects and the unconscious mind.
  17. Expressionism
    20th century art movement; artists depicted not objective reality but subjective motions and personal responses to subjects and events.
  18. Wassily Kandinsky
    Russian painter, founding member of Der Blaue Reiter, who because the leading advocate of art that could reveal the spiritual nature of people through orchestration of color, line and form in purely abstract means.
  19. Man Ray
    An American photographer from Philadelphia who experimented with photographic abstractions, pioneered solarization and photograms (which he called Rayographs).
  20. Plakatstil
    The reductive, flat-color poster design style that emerged in Germany early in the 20th century.
  21. Lucian Bernhard
    (1883-1972) self taught artist, pivotal designer of German Plakastil posters. He established the approach to the poster using flat color shapes to illustrate the product, along with the product name hand-painted.
  22. James Montgomery Flagg
    American illustrator whose sketchy painting style was widely known, created 46 war posters, created the iconic "Uncle Sam" recruitment poster based on a model by Thomas Nast.
  23. J.C. Leyendecker
    Was America's most popular illustrator between the World Wars, developed the handsome styling of the "Arrow Collar man".
  24. Ludwig Hohlwein
    Leading Plakastil designer; created advertising images and was ultimately recruited by Hitler and the 3rd Reich to design Nazi propaganda images.
  25. Art Deco
    Popular geometric design style of the 1920-30's. Based on Cubism and design styles from ancient Egyptian, Aztec, Assyria.
  26. A.M. Cassandre
    French Art Deco poster designer; known for his bold, simple designs that emphasized two-dimensionality and are composed of broad, simplified planes of colors. He designed many popular travel posters.
  27. Constructivism
    design in Russia focusing on the mathematical and structural properties of architecture focused on the utilitarian, mainly in the poster design form.
  28. El Lissitzky
    painter, graphics designer, architect and photographer, studied in Germany. He best realized the Constructivist idea, using mathematical structure as the basis of his work. He largely developed the modern design aesthetic.
  29. De Stijl
    Dutch design focusing on the purity of square shapes and primary colors. Sought the universal laws of equilibrium and harmony for art, which could then be a prototype for a new social order.
  30. Piet Mondrian
    Painter who popularized De Stijl. He reduced his paintings and designs to the use of primary colors with black horizontal and vertical lines, and flat planes.
  31. The Bauhaus
    (1919-24) German Design school that sought a union of art & technology in all arts and design; they merged applied arts with fine art.
  32. Walter Gropius
    German architect, founder of the Bauhaus School.
  33. Justification
    how typographic paragraphs are aligned to the left or the right.
  34. Visual hierarchy
    theory that the content in a design is ordered according to prominence, position, with no elements competing for visual dominance.
  35. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
    Berlin architect, the Bauhaus director up until its closing by the Nazis. He greatly influenced modern American architectural design. (In 1933 Pressure from the Nazis forces the Bauhaus to close.)
  36. Otto Neurath
    Viennese sociologist who developed a system of elementary pictographs: inventor of ISOTYPE
    began in the 1920's: International System of Typographic Picture Education.
  38. Dingbat
    also known as a printer ornament, is a type setting spacer or character that includes arrows, pointing hands, stars, fleurons, etc.*
  39. Erté
    (1892-1990) Russian-born, French -educated art deco illustrator; his images focused on elegance and high fashion.
  40. Bleed
    what occurs when the printed matter of a page runs over the intended cut size.
  41. Cropping
    the manner of editing the space of a printed picture; how an image is cut or framed
  42. Works Progress Administration
    was the largest and the most ambitious New Deal agency, started by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1935. The W.P.A. employed Americans to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads; it also provided relief to unemployed artist to create art, drama,media and literacy projects.
  43. The International Typographic Style (Swiss Design)
    major design style that focuses on the elements of objective photography, sans-serif typography, flush left/ragged right alignment, mathematical grids, and the reaction of propaganda techniques. The intent is design that is objective in its communication.
  44. Univers & Helvetica
    sans serif type families created during the Swiss design movement. Each family has a remarkable continuity between various fonts."Helvetica" is an approximate translation of "Switzerland"in Latin. Helvetica became the most popular typeface internationallyduring the 1960s and 1970s.
  45. Environmental Graphics
    designs created to embellish public space, often purely typographic.
  46. Saul Bass
    Carried the sensibilities of the New York school to Los Angeles. Known for his minimal and conceptual designs, he created memorable film title designs in the 1950s and 1960s.
  47. Herb Lubalin
    typographic genius who disregarded traditional rules of type design and reinvented alphabet characters as innovative conceptual images.
  48. Typogram
    a brief, visual typographic work of art; the use of type as a conceptual graphic. Pioneered by Herb Lubalin.
  49. Paul Rand
    played a pivotal role in the evolution of American corporate graphics. Rand realized that in order to be functional over along period of time, a trademark should be reduced to elementary shapes that are universal, visually unique, and stylistically timeless.
  50. The Federal Design Improvement Program
    initiated in 1974, the United States government overhaul of government-related graphics. Standardized the use of Helvetica, Times New Roman fonts, and a grid.
  51. Pictographs
    is an picture/symbol that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.
  52. The Polish Poster
    posters made in Poland post WWII. They were highly conceptualand often painterly; they expressed tragic memories and aspirations for the future. The poster became source of national pride in Poland.
  53. Push Pin Studio
    in 1954, a group if innovative New York conceptual designers banded together to create a powerhouse design studio. The Push Pin Graphic magazine provided a forum for presenting new ideas, imagery and techniques.These group of artists attained global influence.
  54. Milton Glaser
    Glaser was main part of the Push Pin studios and was known by exploring new graphic techniques and motifs.
  55. Revivalism & Historicism
    graphic design that consciously looks to past design styles for the visual appearance of contemporary graphics.
  56. Psychedelic posters
    posters that emerged from 1960's rock & roll drug culture, started in the Height-Ashbury neighborhoods of San Francisco. These poster were anti-establishment, using wildly illegible type and jarring contrasting colors
  57. Wes Wilson
    was a Psychedelic poster graphics designer for the Grateful Dead; known as an innovator of the Psychedelic poster style.
  58. The third-world poster
    in the 1980's posters created by emerging nations of Latin America, Asia, and Africa; the used posters as effective means to communicate social and political issues. Known as the "third world" due to the worldwide dominance and influence of the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A.
  59. Noh theater
    form of classical Japanese theater with origins in the 14th century. Uses highly stylized action, costume, and scenery. The story is suggested rather than re-enacted by an all-male cast.
  60. Postmodernism
  61. Supergraphics
  62. Step rule
  63. Bezier curves
    named after Pierre Bezier who invented the mathematically generated non-uniform curves defined by four control points, Initially used to create digital typography.
  64. David Carson
    former professional surfer and schoolteacher, turned to editorial design in the 1980's. He abandoned grid formats, traditional hierarchy, and consistent page layout; he chose instead to use erratic letterspacing and overlapping that lead to illegibility.
  65. Zines
  66. Hypertext
  67. Interactive media
  68. Linear Series
  69. Spatial zoom
  70. Parallel texts
  71. Overlays
  72. Hierarchies
Card Set
Final Exam
Vocabulary for the final
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