Abnormal Psych - Personality Disorders (Ch. 9)

  1. Enduring traits that are fairly stable over time or make a person who s/he is
  2. Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and oneself that are inflexible and pervasive and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress
    Personality Disorders
  3. The pattern of personality disorder is of (short/long) duration, and onset can be traced back to _________.
    Long; adolescence or early adulthood
  4. The enduring pattern of PDs is inflexible and pervasive across a (broad/narrow) range of personal and social situations.
  5. PDs are (stable/variable) and last for a (short/long) period of time
    Stable; long
  6. PDs are (ego-dystonic/ego-syntonic)
  7. Ego-dystonic and Ego syntonic
    • Ego-dystonic: symptoms are dissonant with person's self-image; causes personal distress and discomfort
    • Ego-syntonic: consistent with one's self-image; they do not bother the person
  8. DSM-4 Axes: Which axis included personality disorders?
    Axis II
  9. 2 Reasons Why DSM-4 Separated PDs From Other Disorders, and Why they don't anymore.
    • Different etiology than Axis I: Not always true
    • More stable/more resistant to treatment than Axis I: some Axis I disorders are stable, some PDs are treatable
  10. Are self-assessment measures adequate for PDs? Why or why not?
    No. The ego-syntonic nature of PDs means they are not distressed and unaware of their pathology.
  11. Diagnostic reliability is (high/low) among clinicians regarding PDs
  12. There (is/is not) clear evidence for stability regarding PDs.
    Is not
  13. There (is/is not) overlap among categories of PDs
  14. Are PDs culturally universal?
    It is not clear
  15. There is (much/little) research about PDs
  16. 2 Ways in which PDs Are Difficult to Treat
    • Person does not recognize they have a problem
    • Interpersonal difficulties interfere with the therapeutic relationship
  17. 2 Models of Classification of PDs
    • Categorical Model
    • Dimensional Model
  18. Advantages of Categorical Classifications of PDs
    • Familiar/convenient
    • Ease in communication
    • Consistent with clinical diagnoses
  19. Disadvantages of Categorical Classification of PDs
    • Low inter-rater reliability
    • High comorbidity
    • High overlap among symptom criteria
    • Not based on a theoretical model
    • Ambiguity occurs regarding presence vs absence
    • Most commonly diagnosed PD is PD-NOS (not otherwise specified)
  20. Most commonly diagnosed PD is ______
  21. The Dimensional Model of PDs that we focus on in class is _______
    Five Factor Dimensional Model
  22. Five-Factor Model - what are the five factors?
    • Openness: willingness to consider and explore unfamiliar ideas, feelings, and activities
    • Conscientiousness: persistence in pursuit of goals; organization; dependability
    • Extraversion: interest in interacting with other people; positive emotions
    • Agreeableness: willingness to cooperate and empathize with others
    • Neuroticism: expression of negative emotion
  23. Advantages of Dimensional Model
    • Theoretical basis
    • Retention of information (less stereotyping; highlights adaptive traits)
    • Flexible
    • Resolution of a variety of classification dilemmas (avoids arbitrary assignments; addresses problems of comorbidity)
    • Higher inter-rater reliability
  24. (Categorical/Dimensional) models of PDs have a higher inter-rater reliability
  25. (Categorical/Dimensional) models of PDs have more of a clinical application
  26. (Categorical/Dimensional) models of PDs are more familiar
  27. (Categorical/Dimensional) models of PDs lead to less stereotyping
  28. (Categorical/Dimensional) models of PDs leads to high comorbidity
  29. (Categorical/Dimensional) models of PDs are more rooted in a theoretical basis
  30. Social Motivation in PDs: (Diminished/Exaggerated) motivation for affiliation and (Diminished/Exaggerated) motivation for power sometimes contribute to PDs
    Diminished; Exaggerated
  31. A person's most basic, characteristic styles of relating to the world, especially those styles that are evident during the first years of life
  32. (Categorical/Dimensional) model of PDs is the official model used by the DSM-5
  33. General characteristics of the three clusters of PDs
    • Cluster A: Odd, eccentric
    • Cluster B: often appear dramatic, emotional, erratic
    • Cluster C: often appear anxious or fearful
  34. The 10 PDs; organized by Cluster
    • Cluster A: Paranoid PD, Schizoid PD, Schizotypal PD
    • Cluster B: Narcissistic PD, Antisocial PD, Histrionic PD, Borderline PD
    • Cluster C: Avoidant PD, Dependent PD, Obsessive-Compulsive PD
  35. Cluster A PDs are associated with ________, and thus are often called _______ __________ ___________
    • Schizophrenia
    • Schizophrenia spectrum disorders
  36. Cluster A PDs are more common in (men/women)
  37. Paranoid Personality Disorder
    • Pervasive, extreme mistrust
    • Often hostile
    • Perceives others' motives as malevolent
    • Not schizophrenia because these concerns don't reach delusional proportions and aren't preposterous or obviously false
  38. Prevalence of Paranoid PD (%)
  39. Paranoid PD may be first apparent when?
    In childhood
  40. Increased prevalence of Paranoid PD among relatives of people with _________
  41. Paranoid PD: Comorbidities and Risk
    -May experience very brief ______ in response to stress
    -May appear as antecedent to _________ or __________
    -May be comorbid with ________ and __________
    -Increased risk for ________ and __________
    • Psychotic episodes
    • Delusional disorder or schizophrenia
    • Depression and alcohol use disorders
    • OCD and agoraphobia
  42. People with Paranoid PD are (likely/unlikely) to seek treatment
  43. Therapists are (optimistic/pessimistic) about treatment of paranoid PD
  44. Treatment of Paranoid PD includes:
    Trusting atmosphere, cognitive therapy to correct cognitive errors
  45. Schizoid PD
    • Aloof, cold
    • Detached from social relations
    • Restricted range of emotion
    • Not distressed by lack of social contact
  46. People with schizoid PD (are/are not) distressed by lack of social relationships
    Are not
  47. Prevalence of Schizoid PD (%)
  48. Schizoid PD is higher in (males/females)
    Slightly higher in males
  49. Schizoid PD may be first apparent in _________
  50. Increased prevalence of schizoid PD in relatives of individuals with ________ or _________
    Schizophrenia or schizotypal PD
  51. Schizoid PD: Comorbidities and Risk
    -May experience very brief _______ in response to stress
    -May appear as antecedent of _______ or ______
    -Sometimes develop _________
    • Psychotic episodes
    • Delusional disorder or schizophrenia
    • depression
  52. Therapists are (optimistic/pessimistic) about treatment of schizoid PD
  53. Schizotypal PD
    • Socially isolated
    • Cognitive or perceptual distortions - ideas of reference, magical thinking, illusions
    • Behavioral eccentricities
  54. Magical Thinking
    • Belief, quasi-belief, or semiserious entertainment of the possibility that events which cannot have a causal relation might nevertheless do so
    • Ex: I must wear my red socks for my soccer game or else we will lose
  55. Prevalence of schizotypal PD (%)
  56. Schizotypal PD is more common among (males/females)
    Slightly more common in males
  57. Over half of people with schizotypal PD have ________
  58. Over half of people with ________ PD have MDD
  59. Schizotypal PD: Comorbidities and Risk
    -In response to stress, may experience very brief ________
    -Coocurrence with which 4 PDs?
    • psychotic episodes
    • schizoid, paranoid, avoidant, borderline
  60. Trauma may play a role in which Cluster A PD?
  61. Gender-specific findings regarding trauma and schizotypal PD
    • Men: childhood maltreatment
    • Women: traumatic events
  62. Two Pathways to schizotypal PD
    • Genes associated with schizophrenia
    • Psychological trauma
  63. Treatment of schizotypal PD
    • Smaller dosages of antipsychotics; modest evidence for SSRIs
    • Psychoeducational therapy focused on social skills
  64. Histrionic PD
    • Pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking
    • Self-centered
    • Provocative behavior
    • Shallow emotions
    • Frequently react with exaggeration
  65. Histrionic PD is more common in (males/females)
    Neither; equally common in both
  66. Narcissistic PD
    Pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy
  67. Histrionic PD is comorbid with ________, _________, and _________
    • MDD
    • other cluster B PDs
    • Dependent PD
  68. Narcissistic PD is comorbid with _________, ________, ___________, and __________
    anorexia, substance use disorders, other cluster B PDs, paranoid PD
  69. Narcissistic PD is more common in (men/women)
  70. Treatment of Narcissistic PD
    • May seek for MDD
    • Cognitive Therapy to improve empathy and coping with criticism
  71. Antisocial PD
    • Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15
    • Must be at least 18
    • Evidence of CD before age 15
  72. Psychopathy
    Deceitful, lacks empathy, and incapable of learning from experience
  73. Psychopathy (is/is not) listed in DSM-5
    Is not
  74. Many people with ASPD also have _________
  75. Psychopathy captures a subset of people with ________ PD
  76. _____% of prisoners with psychopathy
  77. Antisocial PD is more common in (males/females)
  78. Antisocial PD is higher in samples with (good/bad) socioeconomic or sociocultural factors
  79. Antisocial PD has high comorbidity with _______
    Substance use disorders
  80. Which PD may "burn out" after age 40?
    Antisocial PD
  81. Antisocial PD Etiology: Biological Factors
    Adoption study: higher in people with parents with ASPD
  82. Antisocial PD Etiology: Psychological Factors - 2 Hypotheses
    • 1: They can ignore the effects of punishment (emotionally impoverished)
    • 2: They have trouble shifting their attention (impulsive)
  83. Antisocial PD Treatment
    • Rarely seek unless court-ordered
    • Poor prognosis, not effective
  84. Borderline PD
    • Pervasive pattern of instability in personal relationships, self-image, and affects
    • Marked impulsivity
    • Identity disturbance
  85. Up to 80% of people with _________ PD have suicidal behaviors
    Borderline PD
  86. Childhood maltreatment leads to significantly higher prevalence rates for which cluster of PDs?
    Cluster B
  87. Borderline PD: Etiology
    • Genetic
    • Poor/abusive parenting
    • Childhood maltreatment
  88. Borderline PD is more common in (males/females)
  89. Treatment of Borderline PD
    • Medication (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, lithium)
    • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
  90. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is used to treat ________ PD
  91. Main treatment goal of DBT
    Address emotional dysregulation
  92. Components of DBT
    • Individual therapy
    • Group therapy
    • Telephone consultation
    • Consultation team
  93. Avoidant PD
    • Want to be liked by others, but extremely shy and avoid social situations
    • Social isolation
    • Fearful of criticism/negative evaluation
  94. Avoidant PD is more common in (males/females)
    Equally common in both
  95. Which PD is almost the same as generalized phobia?
    Avoidant PD
  96. Treatment of Avoidant PD
    Exposure Therapy
  97. Dependent PD
    • Submissive and clinging behavior
    • Fears of separation
  98. Separation anxiety disorder as a child may predispose someone to _______ PD
  99. Dependent PD is more common in (males/females)
    Equally common in both
  100. Treatment of Dependent PD
    Therapy focused on helping client make more independent choices
  101. Obsessive-Compulsive PD
    • Pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control
    • At the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency
    • "Workaholics"
  102. Those with _______ are more likely to have OCPD
    Anxiety disorders
  103. OCPD is more common in (males/females)
  104. PDs often originate _________ and become ingrained by ___________
    • Childhood
    • Adulthood
  105. Prevalence Rates of PDs:
    -% across general population
    -More common in men/women?
    • 10-14%
    • Equal (but different for specific disorders)
  106. Prognosis is generally (good/poor) for PDs
  107. _________ PD is unquestionably greater among males than females
Card Set
Abnormal Psych - Personality Disorders (Ch. 9)