PSY/220 Positive Psychology

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  1. Trait Negativity Bias
    Studies of impression formation show that information about negative traits and behaviors contributes more to how we think about other than does positive information.
  2. Posttraumatic growth (PTG)
    A counterpart to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Positive growth can occur as a result of traumatic experiences.
  3. Measures of subjective well-being
    Assess a person's level of life satisfaction and frequency of positive and negative emotional experiences.
  4. The disease model
    Psychology focused on treating illness, rather than building strengths.
  5. Pleasant life
    The emphasis on understanding the determinants of happiness as a desired state.
  6. Engaged life
    An aspect of happiness focused on active involvement in activities and relationships with others that express our talents and strengths.
  7. Meaningful life
    An aspect of happiness that derives from going beyond our own self-interests and preoccupations. Being involved in something larger than yourself.
  8. Misery index
    Information about how many people are suffering from significant problems that diminish the quality of their lives.
  9. Languishing
    A state of distress and despair, not severe enough to meet current mental illness criteria.
  10. Eudaimonic happiness
    self-realization -  a process in which our talents, needs, and deeply held values direct the way we conduct our lives. Realizing our potentials!
  11. Hedonic happiness
    Personal happiness and pleasure with the perspective being focused on the exterior, rather than the interior or mind.
  12. Positive affect
    A summary term for pleasurable emotions such as joy, contentment, laughter, and love.
  13. Subjective
    From the point of view of the individual.
  14. Three components of SWB
    Life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Life satisfaction is a cognitive judgment concerning how satisfied a person is with his or her life. The emotional components refer to peoples/ feelings about their lives.
  15. Duchenne smile
    Trained coders can distinguished a genuine, authentic smile from on that is forced or unauthentic.
  16. Peak-end rule
    Global judgments predicted by the peak of emotional intensity during an experience and the ending emotional intensity.
  17. Experience sampling methods (ESM)
    A variety of measures that provide a "day-in-the-life" view of emotions and events in people's lives.
  18. Day reconstruction method (DRM)
    Combines the accuracy of real-time measures with the efficiency of daily diaries. People are asked to think of their day's events as a sequence of episodes or scenes in a film.
  19. Global measures
    An overall summary judgment of well-being, which is likely to be sensitive personality traits and less sensitive to the current state of an individual.
  20. Self-determination theory (SDT)
    Well-being and happiness result from the fulfillment of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
  21. Personal projects
    Activities and concerns that people have in their lives. For example, "completing my English exam" and "getting more outdoor exercise".
  22. Personal strivings
    The things you are typically or characteristically trying to do in your everyday behavior. For example, "trying to persuade others one is right" and "trying to help others in need of help".
  23. Goal organization (hierarchy)
    Goals can be arranged in a hierarchy with general, more abstract, and "higher-order" goals at the top and more concrete, specific, and "lower-order" goals at the bottom.
  24. Nomothetic goal models
    Describing universal needs, values, and goals shared by most people.
  25. Idiographic goal models
    Focused on the unique ordering of goals by particular individuals.
  26. Values
    Desirable states that function as general guides or principles of living. They describe broad and general goals that may motivate a wide range of behaviors.
  27. Schwartz's theory
    Values are conceived as cognitive representations of three universal requirements for human existence: biological needs of the individual, needs for coordinated social interactions, and needs related to the welfare of groups and social interactions.
  28. Intrinsic goals
    Defined by their connection to important psychological needs that are assumed to make their pursuit and fulfillment inherently satisfying.
  29. Extrinsic goals
    Desires for external rewards or praise and admiration from others and are assumed to be less inherently or deeply satisfying when pursued or attained.
  30. Possible selves
    All the potential futures that we can imagine for ourselves.
  31. Matching hypothesis
    A way of sorting out which goals lead to increased well-being and which do not. It suggests that the degree of person-goal fit determines the effect of goal progress and goal achievement on well-being.
  32. Self-concordance theory
    Describes how the reasons behind goal pursuit are critical to well-being outcomes. Pursuing goals for the "right" reasons leads to better goal achievement and personal adjustment.
  33. Autonomous motives
    Freely chosen reasons for goal pursuit that generate feelings of ownership and personal expressiveness.
  34. Controlled motivation
    Refers to cases in which people pursue goals that they have not freely chosen, or that are not personally expressive.
  35. Introjected motives
    Negative emotions we may experience if we don't try to attain certain goals.
  36. Identified motives
    Valuing a goal because of its personal importance, though people may sometimes come to value a goal because of the influence of others.
  37. Intrinsic motives
    Emotional pleasure and enjoyment derived from pursuing a goal.
  38. Terror management theory
    How fear of death motivates attempts to restore a sense of safety and security. Predicts that confronting thoughts or images of death creates feelings of insecurity that motivate a defensive strengthening of worldviews and self-esteem, in order to restore a sense of security.
  39. Primary control
    Attempts to change and mold the external environment to fit the needs and goals of the self.
  40. Secondary control
    The emphasis is on changing the self to fit the external environment.
  41. Self-control
    People's ability to initiate and guide their actions toward the achievement of a desired future goal.
  42. Control theory
    Highlights how people use goals as references for directing and regulating action over time. Based on "feedback loops" that are used to control some process relative to a given reference point. Feedback loop (test, operate, test, and exit). Efforts are focused on reducing the discrepancy between the current state and a future goal.
  43. Self-discrepancy theory
    Self-regulation is directed by "self-guides," which involve comparisons between the actual self, the ideal self, and the "ought self". The magnitude of the dicrepancies between the actual self, ideal self, and ought self are the bases for positive and negative emotions.
  44. Goal intentions
    Our desire to achieve a certain outcome.
  45. Implementation intentions
    Define our plan of action by specifying the exact steps necessary to achieve the goal.
  46. Self-efficacy
    The belief in one's competence to produce desirable outcomes through one's own efforts.
  47. Approach goals
    Positive outcomes that people hope to move toward, or maintain (e.g., get along better with a roommate, stay physically fit).
  48. Avoidance goals
    Are negative outcomes that people hope to avoid, or prevent (e.g., stop arguing with a roommate, avoid gaining weight).
  49. Intergoal facilitation
    Cases where the pursuit of one goal at the same time enhances the odds of success in achieving another goal.
  50. Action identification theory
    Any action can be identified at more than one level. Lower-order levels refer to how something is done in terms of the concrete and specific behaviors involved. Higher-order levels refer to why an action is carried out in terms of more abstract and general reasons.
  51. Ironic effects of mental control
    Offer one explanation for paradoxes of self control - when the more we try, the worse it gets.
  52. Triangle model of responsibility
    Describes how we evaluate the legitimacy of excuses. Focuses on our judgments of responsibility. The three components of this model are prescriptive clarity, personal obligation, and personal control.
  53. Prescriptive clarity
    The rules, goals, procedures, and standards that are relevant to an event, which describe what should be done, and how.
  54. Personal obligation
    Describes the extent to which a person is required, expected, or duty-bound to follow the prescriptions or rules of conduct.
  55. Personal control
    Refers to the amount of control a person has over the outcome of the event in question.
  56. Psychological distance
    Refers to a psychological separation between the self and the situation, event, or object. Creating distance rather than acting in the moment often pay big dividends in the form of better decisions and improved self-control.
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PSY/220 Positive Psychology
Positive psychology study notes
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