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managerial accounting quiz 5
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Capital budgeting
Tools used to evaluate investments in long lived capacity resources.
Time value of money
$1 today is worth more than $1 a year from now.
4 elements of project cash flows
1. initial outlay
2.Estimated life and salvage value of asset
3. Operating cash flows for each year of asset life
4.Cost of capital
Initial outlay
All up-front costs incurred to ready the asset for its intended use.(Purchase price+costs of delivery,installation etc)
Asset life
How long we're going to use an asset
salvage value
residual value from disposing of the asset at the end of its useful life.
cost of capital
rate of return that providers of capital expect from their investment.
NPV(definition)
total present value of all cash flows from a project
NPV formula
Net cash flows
in whichever period it is
1
(1+r)^(whichever period is)
do this for each period and add them all up
IRR (definition)
Discount rate in which NPV is zero
in IRR the project is profitable if_______
IRR>cost of capital
Payback period(definition)
how long it takes to recoup the initial investment
payback period(formula)
initial outlay/annual cash flow
(only used if cash flows are the same in all years)
modified payback(formula)
net cash flow*present value factor.
(add these up until initial outlay is paid back)
accounting rate of return(formula)
average annual income from project
average investment
annual income(formula)
annual cash flow-depreciation
average investment(aka average book value of asset)(formula)
(beginning book value=ending book value)/2
decentralization
need to measure and evaluate performance of managers of individual divisions or business units within the firm.
3 types of responsibility centers
1. cost center
2. profit center
3. investment center
cost center
controls costs, but not revenues or investments
profit center
controls costs and revenues, but not investments.
investment center
controls costs, revenues and investments
Two main goals for cost center managers(short and long term)
short term
: achieving cost targets for a given level of output.
long-term
: continuous efficiency improvements to reduce costs.
Short term performance measures for cost center managers
Usually, focus on flexible budget variances.
long term performance measures for cost center managers
benchmarking and Kaizen
benchmarking
compare efficiency of various activities and business processes in the firm against best practices in the industry.
kaizen
(continuous improvement): hold managers accountable for achieving sustained cost reduction.
3 main measures to evaluate performance of investment centers.
return on investment
residual income
Economic value added
ROI(formula)
Profit/investment
OR
Profit margin*asset turnover
profit margin(formula)
profit/sales
Asset turnover(formula)
sales/investment
Residual income(aka RI) (formula)
Profit-(required rate of return*investment)
economic value added(formula)
NOPAT-{WACC*(invested capital-current liabilities)
Net operating profit after taxes(aka NOPAT) (formula)
(1-taxrate)*net operating profit before taxes
WACC(definition)
weighted average cost of capital
Author
tmoy4565
ID
271480
Card Set
managerial accounting quiz 5
Description
Chapters 11,12
Updated
2014-04-22T18:03:18Z
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