A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, with each substance retaining it's chemical identity
The component of the solution present in the greatest amount.
The component of the solution present in a small amount relative to the solvent.
The maximum amout of solute that will dissolve in a given amount solvent.
A solution that contains the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved under the conditions at which the solution exists
A solution that contains less solute than the maximum amount that could dissolve
A solution that contains more dissolved solute than that needed for a saturated solution
A solution that contains a small amount solute in comparison relative to the amount that could dissolve.
A solution that contains a large amount solute in comparison relative to the amount that could dissolve.
A solution in which water is the solvent
A solution in which a substance other water is the solvent
Factors affecting the rate of Solution Formation
- 1. the state of subdivision of the solute (a crushed aspirin will dissolve faster than a whole aspirin because of more surface area and it is less compacted.)
- 2. The degree of agitation during solution prep (stirring makes the solute dissolve faster)
- 3. the temperature of the soltuion components (solution formation occurs more rapidly at higher temperatures)
Ionic Compounds Soluable in Water with No Exceptions
- Group IA Elements
- Ammonium (NH4+)
- Acetate (C2H3O2-)
- Nitrate (NO3-)
Ionic Compounds Soluable in Water with Exceptions
- Choride (Cl-), Bromide (Br-) & Iodide (I-) have the following exceptions: Ag+, Pb2+, Hg22+
- Sulfate (SO42-) has the following exception: Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+, Ag+
Ionic Compounds Insoluable in Water with Exceptions
Note: No compound is completely insoluable, this simply means that the compounds listed have a limited soluibility in water.
- Carbonate (CO32-) with the following exceptions: NH4+ and all Group IA elements
- Phosphate (PO43-) with the following exceptions: NH4+ and all Group IA elements
- Sulfide (S2-) with the following exceptions: NH4+ and all Group IA elements, , Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+
- Hydroxide (OH-) with the following exceptions: All Group IA elements, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+
The amount of Solute present in a specified amount of solvent or solution.
Percent by Mass Concentration
percent by mass = (mass of solute divided by mass of solution) x 100
Percent by Volume Concentration
percent by volume = (volume of solute divided by volume of solution) x 100
Mass-Volume Percent Concentration
mass/volume percent = (mass of solute in grams divided by the volume of the solution in mL) x 100