ANT Lecture 26.txt

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  1. The Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness?
    • African origins (>160,000 bp)
    • Homo evolved in a tropical climate
    • Small foraging groups
    • Present-day ecological mismatch
  2. The Modern Western Diet?
    • Plenty of Calories
    • Inefficient consumption of micronutrients (iron, vitamins, antioxidants, folic acid).
    • Electrolytes (K, NaCl, Ca) easily obtained, high proportion of sodium
    • Carbs provide 50% of calories, high glycemic load
    • Protein (RDA 12% calories) consumed high in fat
    • Fat accounts for 40% total calories (mostly milk and meat)
    • Fiber is easily avoided (<1/2 paleolithic diet)
  3. The Paleolithic Prescription?
    • High calorie intake and expenditure
    • Emphasis on micronutrient-rich fruits, nuts, roots
    • Minimal use of cereal grains
    • High consumption of potassium (vs. sodium)
    • Carbs from vegetables and fruits
    • Fat comprises 20% total calories
    • High protein consumption from lean animal sources
    • No dairy
    • Lots and lots of fiber
  4. The Modern Human Condition?
    • Are we zoologically superior?
    • Do we control our own destiny?
    • Have we transcended biological evolution?
  5. Zoological Superiority: Whats the yardstick?
    • Species longevity----- NO
    • Species diversity----- NO
    • Biomass ----------------NO
    • Control of Biosphere YES
  6. If evolution is active, how do we explain maladaptive behaviors?
    • Short versus long term benefit
    • Inclusive fitness (sociobiology)
    • Primacy of cultural values (selection for reciprocal altruism)
  7. Wilsons Sociobiology?
    • Natural selection acts on genes that influence behavior
    • Social plasticity, language, nonreproductive sexuality, cooperative sexual division of labor are uniquely human
    • Territoriality, xenophobia, aggression, bravery, religion are positively selected
    • Autocatalysis model
  8. Dawkins The Selfish Gene?
    • The real competition in natural selection is among genes
    • Individuals are epiphenomenal
    • The meme is the new replicator
    • Selection of memes accounts for cultural innovation
  9. Evolution of risk-aversion?
    • Hypotheses:
    • 1. Cultural/psychological pathology
    • 2. Miscalculated cost:benefit ratio
    • 3. Seeking fitness benefit in social context
  10. Current Approaches
    • Human Behavioral Ecology (HBE)
    • evolutionary stable strategies
    • optimality theory
    • Evolutionary Psychology (EP)
    • environment of evolutionary adaptedness
    • no blank slate; evolved psychological mechanisms
    • Dual Inheritance Theory (DIT)
    • culture is unique but subject to evolutionary process
    • genes and culture must coevolve
    • Memetics
    • viral replication of culture packets
    • memeplexes tangibly influence fitness
  11. HBE?
    status-seeking for higher average fitness
  12. EP?
    anger, anxiety prime risk-taking
  13. DIT?
    alleles damping risk aversion coevolve with cultural appetite for risk
  14. Memetics?
    risk meme an effective replicator
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ANT Lecture 26.txt
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Lecture 26
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