Chapter 23 Bleeding

  1. Cells in other organs, such as the lungs and kidneys, can survive for almost:
    an hour.
  2. Skeletal muscle cells may survive for __ hours in a state of inadequate perfusion.
  3. The right side of the heart receives oxygen-poor blood from the ____.
  4. The left side of the heart supplies oxygen-rich blood to the ____ (which carry it throughout the body).
  5. -The brain and spinal cord may last _ to _ minutes without perfusion.
    -Kidneys may survive __ minutes.
    -Skeletal muscles may last _ hours.
    -The gastrointestinal tract can tolerate slightly longer periods of inadequate perfusion.
    • 4 to 6
    • 45
    • 2
  6. The body will not tolerate an acute blood loss of greater than __% of blood volume.
  7. The typical adult has approximately __ mL of blood per kilogram of body weight.
  8. Significant changes in vital signs may occur if the typical adult loses more than:
    1 L (about 2 pints) of blood.
  9. Effect of blood loss on heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure:
    • Increase in heart rate
    • Increase in respiratory rate
    • Decrease in blood pressure
  10. Use mnemonic DCAP-BTLS to assess for signs of injury:
    • Deformities
    • Contusions
    • Abrasions
    • Punctures/penetrations
    • Burns
    • Tenderness
    • Lacerations
    • Swelling
  11. Most common symptom of internal bleeding:
  12. Ecchymosis
  13. A mass of blood in the soft tissues beneath the skin
  14. Hematuria
    Blood in the urine
  15. Hematemesis
    vomited blood
  16. Melena
    black, foul-smelling, tarry stool with digested blood
  17. Hemoptysis
    bright red blood that is coughed up
  18. A systolic blood pressure of less than ___ mm Hg with a weak, rapid pulse should suggest the presence of hypoperfusion.
  19. Hold uninterrupted pressure for at least  _ minutes.
  20. Elevate a bleeding extremity by as little as _" while applying direct pressure.
  21. Epistaxis
  22. Do not attempt to stop blood flow from a ____ injury.
    • head
    • Applying excessive pressure to the injury may force the blood leaking through the ear or nose to collect within the head.
    • This could increase the pressure on the brain and possibly cause permanent damage.
  23. If bleeding from the nose is present and a skull fracture is not suspected, pinch both nostrils together for __ minutes.
  24. The following are all indications for applying the pneumatic antishock garment (PASG) EXCEPT:
    A. control of massive soft-tissue bleeding in the lower extremities.
    B. control of internal bleeding associated with pelvic fractures.
    C. control of massive bleeding in a pregnant woman.
    D. stabilize fractures of the pelvis and femurs.
    C. control of massive bleeding in a pregnant woman.
  25. After taking standard precautions, the first step in treating a patient suffering from epistaxis is to:
    A. apply direct pressure.
    B. apply ice.
    C. help the patient sit forward.
    D. transport the patient.
    C. help the patient sit forward.
  26. A fractured femur can result in the loss of ______ or more of blood into the soft tissues of the thigh.
    A. 1 L
    B. 250 mL
    C. 2 L
    D. 500 mL
    A. 1 L
  27. If direct pressure with a sterile dressing fails to immediately stop severe bleeding from an extremity, you should apply:
    A. a tourniquet proximal to the injury.
    B. digital pressure to a proximal artery.
    C. additional sterile dressings.
    D. a splint and elevate the extremity.
    A. a tourniquet proximal to the injury.
Card Set
Chapter 23 Bleeding
Chapter 23 Bleeding