1. What are some midline malformations?
    Holoprosencephaly, Spina bifida, Meningioceles

    All arise during gastrulation
  2. During neuralation, too many stem cells causes what deformity?
    Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis

    Proteus Syndrome
  3. Not enough neural crest cells unilaterally causes?
    Hemifacial Microsomia
  4. Not enough neural crest cells bilaterally causes?
    Treacher-Collins Syndrome
  5. What are the ranges for primary and secondary palate formation?
    Primary: 5-8wks

    Secondary: 8-10wks
  6. When is 90% of neuro and chondrocranial growth complete?
  7. When is 90% of viscerocranial growth complete?
    10 yrs
  8. What soft tissues grow in response to intrinsic factors (genetic)?
    Brain, viscera, glads, sense receoptors, nerves, BVs, muscles
  9. What osseous centers grow in response to intrinsic factors?
    Cartilaginous nasal septum, dentition, synchondroses
  10. What soft tissues grow in response to extrinsic (epigenetic) factors?
    Muscle, skin, muscosa, Bvs
  11. What osseous growth sites are epigenetically controlled (respond to space formation)?
    Cortical bone surfaces, articulations
  12. Craniofacial growth is described by three theories, they are?
    1. Intrinsic growth centers (Sicher)

    2.Extrinsic functioning matrices (Moss)

    3.Synthetic Theory (van Limbourgh)
  13. What percentage of zygotes never implant by week 2?
  14. What is the scott cartilaginous theory?
    Maxillary hypoplasia when the septopremaxillary ligament is absent, no facial growth, you need the cartilage
  15. What is a sequence?
    One primary disorder that sets off a cascade affecting other structures
  16. What is a syndrome?
    Sequence is not clear, but the cause is
  17. What is the difference between malformation and deformation?
    Image Upload 1
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