CH 5 Fats

  1. 3 Types of Fats / Lipids
    • Triglycerides
    • Phospholipids
    • Sterols
  2. Triglycerides
    • same form in which most body fat is stored
    • tri = 3 fatty acids attached to a 3 carbon glycerol backbone
    • fatty acid = long chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms
    • triglycerides = 1 fatty acid + 3 carbons
  3. Fats - Chains
    • determined method of digestion, absorption, function, saturation
    • short chain: <6 carbon atoms
    • medium chain: 6-12 C
    • long chain: 14+ C
  4. Fats - Level of Saturation
    • saturated = most hydrogen
    • unsaturated = less hydrogen (monosaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids)
  5. Saturated Fat
    • No double bond carbon molecules
    • Naturally always form straight rigid chains
    • Pack together tightly
    • Solid at room temperature
  6. Unsaturated Fat
    • Double carbon bond
    • Naturally kink
    • unable to pack tight
    • liquid at room temp
  7. Trans Fat
    • Manipulated by manufacturers to form straight, rigid fatty acid or kinks
    • cis = hydrogen on the same side, kink
    • trans = hydrogen attached diagonally, straight
  8. Hydrogenation
    • Manipulating the fatty acids while processing
    • Foods - resist becoming rancid
    • Hydrogen molecules are added directly to unsaturated fatty acids
    • Double bond partially or totally removed, fat becomes more saturated, straight
    • Partially - some double bonds broken
  9. Essential Fatty Acid
    • Required for healthy functioning but body cannot make them
    • Linoleic Acid - Omega-6 (vegetable and nut oils)
    • Alpha Linoleic - Omega-3 (dark green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, soybeans, walnuts, canola, fish, shellfish) / Stimulate the production of regulatory compounds that reduce risk for heart disease
  10. Phospholipids
    • 2 Fatty Acids + Glycerol / Phosphate compound backbone
    • Soluble in water, assist in transporting fats in the blood
    • Help with digestion of fat
    • Liver uses to make bile
    • Body manufactures
    • Phosphorus - mineral
  11. Sterols
    • Found in food and the body
    • Multiple ring structure
    • Do not need to consume, body continually making
    • Synthesizes sex hormones, bile acids, adrenal hormones, essential to human health
  12. Energy
    • Primary source of energy
    • 2x the energy per gram of carb or protein
    • 9 kcal per gram
    • more energy dense
  13. Major Fuel Source at Rest
    • 30-70% of energy used by muscle organs
    • Exact percentage varies due to intake of fat, activity, weight (overweight body uses protein and carbs as fuel source)
  14. Physical Activity
    • Major energy source
    • Best way to lose body fat
    • Fat can be mobilized and used from muscle/adipose tissues, blood lipotrotein, dietary fat
    • Hormone response and amount of fat depends on: level of fitness / type, intensity, duration / food ingested prior to exercise
    • Fatty acid released from adipose cell - travel in blood attached to protein - to the muscles - enter mitochondria - use oxygen to produce ATP, cell's energy source
    • More physically fit? More oxygen delivered to the muscle to use the fat that is delivered
    • More exercise, more fat used, carb/glycogen storage limited in muscle tissue
  15. Adrenaline
    • Rises within seconds of exercise
    • Stimulates breakdown of stored fat
    • Decrease insulin production
    • Insulin inhibits fat breakdown
  16. Energy For Later Use
    • rest, exercise, low intake
    • extra protein cannot be stored
    • some fat storage is essential for health
  17. Vitamin A
    • fat-soluble
    • vision, see at night
  18. Vitamin D
    • fat-soluble vitamin
    • regulating blood calcium / phosphorus concentration, bone health, blood with draw from bones
  19. Vitamin E
    • fat-soluble vitamins
    • Antioxidant, prevent oxidation of body fats
  20. Vitamin K
    Proteins involved blood clotting and bone health
  21. Maintain Cell Function
    • Membrane integrity
    • Determine what enters and exits cell
    • What substance can bind to the cell
    • Cell fluidity - red blood cells bending thru capillaries delivering oxygen
  22. Protection to the body
    • Pads our body
    • Protects our organs
    • Retain body heat
  23. Feel Full
    • High energy density
    • Longer to digest
    • Fat is compact in size
  24. Fats NOT soluble in water
    • Digested, absorbed, and transported differently than carbs and proteins
    • Stomach - mixes and break into droplets
  25. Digestion of Fats
    • Small intestine
    • Pancreas - enzymes that break from glycerol backback 2 free fatty acids
    • Gallbladder - mixing compounds (bile, body's soap)
    • Majority absorbs into mucosal lining with the help from micelle
    • Micelle - bile and phospholipids trap
    • Fatty acids packaged into lipoprotein (chylomicron) to release and travel in bloodstream
  26. 3 fates for dietary fat
    • 1 Immediately taken and used as energy
    • 2 Make lipid containing compounds
    • 3 Stored for later use in muscle or adipose tissue
    • adipose cell - primary storage site
  27. Physically Active
    • Store fat in the muscle tissue first, readily available
    • Fat adipose tissue is broken down first then transported to the muscle cells
  28. How Much Fat?
    • Acceptable macronutrient distribution range for fat is 20-35% of fat per day of total energy
    • Higher intake increases risk for obesity and complications
    • Low intake of fat, high intake of carbs = high triglycerides
    • Minimizes saturated and trans
  29. Dietary Reference for Essentially Fatty Acids
    • Linoleic: Omega-6 (M 14-17g)(F 11-12g)
    • Alpha-Linoleic: Omega-3 (M 1.6g)(F 1.1g)
    • Linoleic : Alpha Linoleic = 5:1 ratio
  30. Recognize fats in food
    • Visible fat intake has decreased over the past decade while hidden fat intake has increased
    • Visible fat - easily see that we are adding (oils, butter, cream, shortening, margarine, mayo, salad dressing)
    • Hidden fats - processed and prepared foods
  31. Fat-Free
    <0.5g fat per serving
  32. Low-Fat
    3g fat or less
  33. Reduced / Less Fat
    25% less than standard serving of fat
  34. "Light" label claim
    1/3 fewer calories or 50% less than standard serving
  35. Saturated Fats
    • Reduce intake of saturated fats
    • Recommended: 7-10% total energy
    • 64%of US adults exceed dietary recommendation
    • Animal Products (meat and whole milk)
    • Grains (baked goods, snack foods)
    • Vegetables (fried, breaded, saturated in sauce)
  36. Fat Replacers
    • Hope to reduce energy and fat intake in order to manager weight
    • Do not help lose weight
    • Do not help maintain weight
Card Set
CH 5 Fats