Explain aerobic respiration
- 1)Glycolysis in cytosol turns glucose into 2 pyruvic acids and 2 ATP and 2 NADH (in cytosol)
- 2)2 pyruvates go through citric acid cycle (one round for each) (inside mitochondria)
- 3)Electron transport chain uses all the NADhs and FADhs to make 34 ATPs in the mitochondria (from the inner to outer micochondrial membrane and back again)
Compare and contrast aerobic and anerobic metabolism
- 1. occurs in presence of oxygen.
- 2. CO2 and water is produced
- 3. lot of energy is liberated (38 ATP)
- 4.occurs in plants' and animals' cells
- 5. C6H12O6 --> CO2 + H2O + ATP ( Energy)
- 1. occurs in absence of oxygen
- 2. Lactic Acid or Alchol is produced
- 3. relatively small energy is liberated (2ATP)
- 4. occurs in many anaerobic bacteria and human muscle cells.
- 5. in muscles, lactic acid is produced while bacteria as Yeast produces Alcohol (Ethanol)
- 6. C6H12O6 --> Lactic acid / C2H5OH + ATP
What are the changes that undergo in an infants respiration and circulation after birth?
While an infant is in the womb it uses its mother to filter wastes and provide O2 to the body instead of using lungs. Because the infant doesn't breath before birth, blood is rerouted around the lungs. When the child is born and it must breath for itself, the following changes occure: blood travels now through pulmonary arteries to the lungs as the ductus arteriosus closes to become a leganment. The foramen ovale closes to keep oxegenated and deoxegenated blood fro mixing in the heart. The ductus venosus in the liver becomes a legament as now the baby's liver has to work on its own. The umbilical arteries and veins turn into legaments now that the child no longer needs them.
Compare and contrast methods of acid/base regulation
- Respiration: fastest way to fix PH. Lungs blow off extra C02 to lower acid content of blood and try and bring PH back to normal; or breathing slows to save C02.
- Buffer: chemical reaction in body fluids and blood to balance Ph quickly using bicarbinate
- Urinary system: slowest way to regulate Ph; kidneys excrete more H ions or hold them back in order to raise or lower ph levels to get it back to normal. More of a long term fix instead of short term.
In order to keep hemostasis all methods are used.
What would happen if fluid was not reabsorbed in the kidneys?
If fluid was not reabsorbed then the osmolality of the kidney would decrease. If this happened then no more liquid could be pulled out of circulation and the kidney wouldn't work as well if at all. The difference in solute concentrate is what makes the kidney work to concentrate urine and filter; decreasing the concentration in the wrong area would throw off this balance and shut it down.
Describe blood and bile flow through the liver (fig 21.29 pg 663)
Hepatic artery carries blood from aorta to porta of liver. Hyepatic portal vein carries nutrient rich but 02 poor blood through porta then enters hepatic sinusoids. Blood in sinusoids comes from hepatic artery and empty into central veins. Bile made by heptaocytes goes to heaptic duct. Hepatic duct branches to form left and right ducts to carry bile out of liver portal.
Compare and contrast the absorptive state (pg 707) and the postabsorptive state(708)
- Absorptive state:
- Nutrients absorbed from digestive tract and go to liver. Liver converts into energy storage molecues. Fatty acids are lreased into blood. Nutrients stored and or used
- post absorptive state:
- Stored nutrients used such as proteins and glycogen. Nutrients processed by the liver to produce additional energy sources. Stored molecules broken down into basic parts in order to be used.
Describe the urine concentration mechanism (pg 731)
Filtrate enters nephrons. 65% of h20 and NaCl in filtrate reabsorbed in promixal convoluted tube. 15% more h20 reabsorbed in the thin segment of decending limb of loop of Hnele. Because this part of the loop is not permeable to water only the NaCl can diffuse out. Filtrate goes to thick sement and sodium is transported out and concentration of filtrate is reduced. Distal convuluted tubes reabsorb h20. By the time the filtrate reaches the tip of the renal pyramid even more h20 is absorbed. One percent of less of the filtrate remains in urin if ADH is present. If the body as too much water, more is excreted by the kidneys and more of the solute is reabsorbed iinstead.
Describe blood osmolaity regulation (pg 747)
- If osmolaity is low:
- ADH decreased in secreation, person feels less thirty. Decreased movement of h20 into blood increases osmoloaity. Permaiblity of the distal convoluted tubes and collecting duct decreases and more water is lowt in urine; fluid intake by drinking decreases...
- If osmolaity is high:
- Hypothalaus detect increase in osmolaity, AHD increases and sensation of thirst increases; Increased movement of h20 into blood decreases osmolality, permeability of distal tubes and collecting ducts to h20 so less water is lost in urine. Fluid intake increases.
Describe how urine is formed (pg 724)
Filtration in bowman's capsule forms filtrate. Liquid moves to tubules solutes are reabsorbed across the wall of the nephron. H20 and solutes pass from interstital fluid into peritubluar capillaries. Solutes are secreted into the filtrate. Then urine is concentrated in the loop of Henle.
Describe blood flow through the kidney as it is filtered
Blood flows into renal artery, to the afferent arteriole. Goes through bowman's capsule then efferent ateriol, then through peritubular capillaries, then to vasa recta capillaries, then to branch of renal vein.
- 1) Many sperm attach to corona radiata of secondary oocyte
- 2) One sperm breaks through the zona pullucida.
- 3) Sperm enters oocyte and oocyte switches off stopping other sperm from entering by moving the zona pullcida away from the oocyte to create a space which stops any other sperm.
- 4) sperm and egg pronucleus merge into one nucleaus.