1. can remain alive for decades
2. can be formed by gram-positives only
3. can survive boiling water
4. all of the above
All of the above
Bacillus and Clostridium can have two forms; an endospore and a
Which term best describes spherical bacteria present in pairs?
Runs and tumbles are associated with bacterial
Phototrophic bacteria carry out a form of photosynthesis.
Most bacteria move by flagella, but some move by cilia.
Gram-negative bacteria have many (>20) layers of peptidoglycan, while gram-positive bacteria only have a few (<5) layers.
The motile feeding stage of protozoa is called
Staphylococci are clusters of cells.
Sporozoan (apicomplexa) protozoa move by
being carried (e.g., by blood)
Which of the following maintains the chromosomes number of eukaryotic cells?
1. snapping division
2. binary fission
5. both 2 and 3
Which of the following does not have a cell wall?
4. all have cell walls
Reproduces primarily by budding:
A fungal filament is called:
Most fungi are called:
They get their food via:
A vector spreads a pathogen from one host to another.
Helminths (worms) are studied in microbiology because the adult worms are microscopic.
Which of the following statments describe algae?
1. They are eukaryotes
2. They may be either microscopic or macroscopic
3. They are classified according to their photosynthetic pigment
4. All of the above statements are correct
5. 1 and 2 are correct statements
All of the above statements are correct.
The general steps in a viral multiplication cycle are:
1. attachment, entry, synthesis, assembly, and release
2. uncoating, penetration, replication, assembly, and budding
3. membrane fusion, duplication, uncoating, assembly, lysis
4. endocytosis, penetration, replication, maturation, and exocytosis
attachment, entry, synthesis, assembly, and release
Living cells are required for culturing viruses because:
1. viruses are technically non-living
2. viruses require host cell genetic machinery to replicate
3. viruses are obligate intracellular parasites
4. all of the above
all of the above
IN GENERAL, RNA viruses multiply in the cell __________ , and DNA viruses multiply in the cell ________________.
Binds enveloped viruses to host cells
Can consist of a protein coat and DNA
Formed from host cell membrane
Binds unenveloped viruses to hosts
Which can be used as mRNA?
Plus strand RNA
A naked, small, infectious RNA molecule is called
A provirus exists when DNA from a virus is inserted in the host chromosome.
Though they are small, viruses are still considered cells
Proto-oncogenes are normal genes associated with cell division
Iodine is considered
The cellular targets of physical and chemical agents fall into general categories including those that damage
the cell membrane
Can be used for fluid or air
Includes ultraviolet light
Includes the batch and flash methods for liquids
Includes gamma rays
A term that indicates an antibacterial agent primarily inhibits growth without substantial killing
The destruction of most microorganisms on non-living tissue is called:
Warmer temperatures generally interfere with the effectiveness of a disinfectant
Ionizing radiation dislodges electrons from molecules, strengthening DNA.
Moist heat is more effective than dry heat at killing microorganisms.
Why are bacterial antibiotics that affect protein synthesis usually effective?
The ribosomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are different.
Inhibit cell wall synthesis
Inhibit DNA or RNA synthesis
Inhibit metabolic pathways
inhibit protein synthesis
disrupt cell membranes
Few drugs are selectively toxic against viruses against
it is difficult to interfere with viral processes without also harming host processes
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism for antiviral drugs?
The disk diffusion susceptibility test (Kirby-Bauer test) measures the _________ of an antibacterial drug.
The MIC is the _______ of a drug that is required to inhibit growth of a microbe.
What is effective against fungal membranes?
Selective toxicity means a drug is effective against _________, but not against ________.
Which of the following statements is true concerning the selection of an antimicrobial agent?
1. An ideal antimicrobial agent is stable during storage.
2. An ideal antimicrobial agent is fast acting.
3. Ideal microbial agents do not exist.
4. All of the above
All of the above.
Penicillin is effective against bacterial cell wall synthesis.
A drug that prevents growth of bacteria but does not kill non-dividing bacteria would be classified as bacteriostatic.
Infections acquired while in a health care facility.
Capsules help bacteria by inhibiting
When cases are concentrated in one area at a relatively stable rate, then the disease
Endotoxins are found in:
Gram negative bacteria only
A virulence factor is one which:
1. allows a microbe to invade and establish itself on the host.
2. allows a host to evade infection.
3. normal flora use against invading microorganisms
4. invading organisms use against normal flora
allows a microbe to invade and establish itself on the host.
Koch's postulates determines
if a microbe causes disease.
Consider the following case. An animal was infected with a virus. A mosquito bit the animal, was contaminated with the virus, and proceeded to bite and infect a person. Which was the vector.
Opportunistic pathogens are LEAST likely to affect which of the following groups:
1. AIDS patients
2. drug addicts
3. college students
4. transplant recipients
Bacterial fimbriae contribute to infection by aiding the bacteria in:
Endogenous infections are caused by:
parasitic flora that have been ingested into the gut
Resident microbiota is absent from the:
Microbial infection damages hosts by:
toxins, exoenzymes, induction of immune response
In a(n) _________ infection, a person can have a period of no illness before reactivation.
Etiology is the study of the cause of disease.
The number of TOTAL cases of a disease in a given area during a given period of time is called the prevalence of a disease.
Normal microbiota consists mostly of bacteria and viruses.
An isotope has a different number of _______ but the same ________ .
neutrons; atomic mass
Amino acids are linked in proteins by ______________ bonds.
A volume of space in which an electron is likely to be found is called a:
The sugar found in RNA is a:
Can form branched chains:
A phospolipid contains:
Two fatty acids and a phospate bound to glycerol
An amphipathic molecule is defined as a molecule that:
both attracts and repels water
ATP is classified as a:
When NaCl is dissolved in water, sodium loses an electron and chlorine gains one. Which of the following is true?
1. A covalent bond is formed between sodium and the oxygen of water.
2. Ionic bonds form causing NaCl to re-form in the solution
3. An oxidation-reduction reaction occurs causing the formation of ATP
4. Sodium becomes a cation, and chlorine becomes an anion.
Sodium becomes a cation, and chlorine becomes an anion.
In proteins, helices and pleated sheets are associated with:
A solution with a pH of 2 ____ than a solution with a pH of 8.
has more H+
The process that forms polymers from individual subunits is called hydrolysis.
Cholesterol is classified as a type of lipid called a steroid.
The three-dimensional shape of a protein refers to its primary structure.
Bacteria grow in _______ by the process of _________.
number; binary fission
Oxygen is toxic to:
What is an organic compound such as an amino acid, nitrogenous base, or vitamin that cannot be synthesized by an organism and must be provided as a nutrient?
A pump protein is most frequently associated with
Penicillin affects the synthesis of gram-positive cell walls. Bacteria would be most sensitive to penicillin during the ______ phase of the growth curve.
The condition that occurs when organisms live in an obligatory but mutually beneficial relationship is called
A candle jar consist of a candle placed in a jar and then allowed to go out. The candle used up most of the oxygen and emits carbon dioxide. Candle jars would thus be used to grow:
Barophiles live in areas of
Defined as the ingestion of whole cells or large solid matter?
Turbidity is measured with a:
A glove box is used to grow:
Green algae would be considered to be:
A bacterial cell in a hypotonic environment will:
swell slightly but not burst
water moves from high water concentration to low water concentration
An allosteric inhibitor binds to the active site of an enzyme
The Krebs cycle produces ___ ATP by substrate level phosphorylation for each pyruvic acid
An atom that donates electrons during a reaction undergoes
A direct product or products of glycolysis is/are:
ATP and Pyruvic Acid
An enzyme has an element of iron in its center Iron is thus classifed as a
The complete metabolism of glucose by aerobic respiration results in ____ ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
Where does the Krebs cycle occur in prokaryotes?
Where does glycolysis occur in eukaryotes?
Another term for biosynthesis.
As electrons move through the electron transport chain _________ are removed from the cell.
is affected by pH and temperature
In fermentation, the terminal electron acceptor is
an organic compound
The substrate binds at the active site of an enzyme
The Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells
When lipids are broken down, completely separate pathways from aerobic respiration are used.
The reverse process of glycolysis is called gluconeogenesis.
Contains a P site
Has an anticodon
DNA taken up from the environment
In which directions do DNA and RNA polymerase work?
Both RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase work in the 5' to 3' direction
Called "jumping genes"
Radiolabeled cytosine (cytosine with radioactive hydrogen) given to a cell would be incorporated into:
both DNA and RNA
As a general rule, the template strand on DNA will always begin with:
Where are prokaryotic chromosomes located?
In the cytoplasm
AUC is one of the stop codons
Replication in the bacteria only occurs just before the bacterial cell divides
Frameshift mutations can be caused by insertions but not by deletions.
A base mutation is a spontaneous mutation that causes a frame shift.
Requires gel electrophoresis
Cuts DNA molecules at specific locations
Determines the order of DNA nucleotides in a genome
Produces a large number of identical DNA molecules
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Uses RNA template to transcribe molecule of cDNA
A genomic library is associated with
recombinant DNA and gene cloning
Two sources of DNA can be compared by labeling once source with radioactive phosphate, separting the strands by heating, and then cooling the sample. If the two sources intermix, it is called:
Recombinant DNA in bacteria can produce:
b. human proteins
c. tansgenic plants
The incorporation of a fluorescent DNA probe with a target DNA molecule is called FISH
A transgenic plant is one that has DNA from another species added to it.
Antisense RNA binds to mRNA allowing an increase in the rate of translation.