1. What are the differences between a cyclone and an anticyclone?
    • low vs high pressure
    • ocean vs land
    • counter-clockwise circulation vs clockwise in Northern hemisphere
    • spring vs winter
  2. How, where and under what conditions to extratropical cyclones form?
    • form along weather fronts over land or ocean in mid-latitudes
    • uses energy from contrasting temperatures of air masses
  3. What are the hazards associated with extratropical cyclones?
    • high waves
    • coastal erosion
    • flooding
    • wind damage
    • snowstorms
    • blizzards
  4. Where and how does a tropical cyclone form?
    • from disorganized low pressure systems (troughs)
    • over tropical ocean away from the equator
  5. What are cyclones called in areas of the world?
    • hurricanes - atlantic
    • typhoons - everywhere else
  6. What environmental conditions are needed for a hurricane to form/live?
    warm water 80 degree F and 150 ft deep
  7. What are the structures of a cyclone
    • rain bands: spiraling lines of thunderstorms with some "towers" extending to top of troposphere
    • eye: circular area of calm winds, lowest atmospheric pressure
    • eyewall: most intense winds and rains, sometimes inner and outer eyewall
  8. How is a tropical storm defined?
    winds > 39 mph, low pressure area
  9. How is a hurricane defined?
    • winds > 74 mph
    • 5 categories based on wind speed intensity
  10. What are the stages in a life cycle of a tropical cyclone?
    • depression
    • tropical storm
    • hurricane
    • dissipation
  11. What are the common tracks these storms follow in the Atlantic Ocean and what land areas are in danger?
    • inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) west of Africa in Atlantic
    • tracks north out into Atlantic or West into Gulf of Mexico
    • Haiti, Cuba, Florida, Louisiana, Carolinas
  12. What are some hurricane hazards?
    • wind
    • storm surge
    • flooding
    • tornadoes
    • lightning
    • fire
    • massive erosion and deposition
    • loss of infrastructure
  13. What factors affect storm surge height?
    • wind speed
    • speed of storm
    • profile of seaflore
    • atmospheric pressure
    • time of day
    • barrier islands and wetlands to protect cities, followed by levees and floodwalls
  14. What caused Hurricane Katrina to be so devastating and how could this have been avoided?
    • damming of rivers lessened needed deposition for barrier islands and wetlands
    • failure in levees and floodwalls
    • failure in FEMA regarding communication and leadership

    education and awareness of the hazard
  15. What is importance of coastal wetlands?
    1 mile of wetlands reduces storm surge by 1 foot
  16. How can you mitigate for hurricane hazards?
    • prep for flooding & high winds
    • evacuate or take shelter
    • prep for 3+ days without source of food, water, or power
    • Engineering - elevated structures, etc.
    • Insurance - not working well presently, becoming costly
    • Zoning - don't build certain structures on a coast at risk
  17. What should individuals do to prepare for a large hurricane
    • survival/emergency kit
    • flashlight, fire extinguisher, NOAA, cash, raingear, meds, water purification, maps
  18. jet stream
    • concentrated winds at high altitudes (troposphere)
    • polar and subtropical
  19. tropical depression
    closed circulation on tropical disturbance
  20. tropical storm
    winds > 39 mph
  21. hurricanes
    winds > 74 mph
  22. inter-tropical convergence zone
    • area encircling earth near equator where trade winds converge causing erratic weather patterns
    • known to sailors as the doldrums
  23. When is hurricane season in the US
    July - November
  24. storm surge
    abnormal rise in sea level along a coast, due to high winds in ocean literally pushing the water towards the coast
  25. wetlands
    a lowland area that is saturated with moisture
  26. FEMA
    federal emergency management agency
Card Set
GEOL 1301 Major Review Topics for Exam III