Psyc 16 - class

  1. psychological disorder
    • the presence of a constellation of symptoms that create significant distressimpair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living; or lead to significant risk of harm
    • symptoms: cognitive, emotional, behavrioural
  2. psychosis
    impaired perception and comprehension, plus disorganized behariour
  3. delusions
    false beliefs
  4. abnormal psychology
    • scientific study of psychological disorders
    • no universal definition of what is abnormal behaviour
    • agreed-upon features (4 d's) - deviance, distress, dysfunction, danger
  5. diathesis stress model
    vulnerability for psychological disorders can be triggered by stress
  6. dsm-IV: axis
    • axis 1: clinical disorders (e.g Mood disorders)
    • axis 2: personality disorders (e.g narcissism and mental retardation)
    • axis 3: general medical conditions
    • axis 4: psychosocial and environmental problems
    • axis 5: global assessment of functioning
  7. rosenhan
    falsely admitted himself to a mental hospital then stopped having symptoms to show how bad it is in the hospitals
  8. the neuroscience model
    • view disorders as illnesses caused by a malfunctioning brain
    • factors contributing
    • 1. genetic inheritance (mood disorders, schizophrenia, mental retardation, alzheimers)
    • 2. too few or too many of certain types of neurotransmitters
  9. Neuroscience model: causes
    • viral infection: fetal or childhood exposure and schizophrenia
    • hormones: excess cortisol in depression
    • specific brain structures: huntington's disease and loss of cells in the striatum
    • does not take into account additional factors such as stress, experiences
  10. antisocial disorders and the brain
    no link between abnormal brain structures and antisocial patters
  11. cognitive-behavioural model
    • disorders are the result of maladaptive learned behaviours and problematic thinking
    • -behaviour and thinking interact and influence each other
    • - acknowledge that emotions and biological factors also interact with behaviour and cognition
  12. behavioural perspective
    based on learning principles from classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modelling
  13. cognitive perspective
    • maladaptive beliefs and illogical thinking processes cause distress
    • beliefs about the self and the world
    • arbitrary inferences: negative conclusions based on little evidence
    • selective perception: seeing negative features of events
    • magnification: exaggerating the importance of negative events
    • overgeneralization: broad, negative conclusions
  14. psychodynamic model
    • underlying, perhaps unconscious psychological forces cause conflict
    • rooted in freudian theory
    • fixation: being trapped at an early stage of development due to traumatic childhood experiences
    • object relations theorisits: believe people's primary  motivation is to form relationships - problems in early relationships result in psychological problems
    • unsupported by research - the whole model
  15. the socio-cultural model
    • a society's characteristics create stressors for some of it's members
    • -widespread social change
    • - socio-economic class
    • - cultural factors (can increase stress, japan has high teen suicide rate)
    • social networks and supports
    • family systems
  16. family systems
    family systems theory: a theory holding that each family has its own implicit rules, relationship structure, and communication patterns that shape the behaviour of the individual members
  17. The Developmental psychopathology model
    study how problem behaviours evolve as a function of a person's genes and early experiences and how these early issues affect the person at later life stages
  18. The Developmental psychopathology model: risk factors, equifinality, multifinality, resilience
    • risk factors: biological and environmental factors that contribute to problem outcomes
    • equifiniality: the idea that different children can start from different points and wind up at the same outcome
    • multifinilaty: the idea that children can start from the same point and wind up at any number of different outcomes
    • resilience: the ability to recover from or avoid the serious effects of negative circumstances
  19. mood disorders
    persistent or episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life
  20. major depressive disorder
    • a disorder characterized by a depressed mood that is significantly disabiliing and is not cuased by such factors as drugs or a general medical condition
    • most common psychological disorder in the united states
    • more common in women
    • suicide - attempted by 30% of depressed people
  21. major depressive disorder: symptoms
    • emotional: depressed mood
    • motivational: loss of desire to do usual activities, lack of drive
    • behavioural: less active and productive, may move and speak slowly or seem physically agitated
    • cognitive: negative self-evaluation, self-blame, pessimism, guilt, indecisiveness, difficulty concentrating, thoughts of death or suicide
    • physical: headaches, indigestion, constipation, dizzy spells, pain, sleep and eating disturbance, fatigue
  22. explanations for major depressive disorder: neuroscientists, socio-cultural theorists, cognitive-behavioural theorists 
    • neuroscientist: genetic predisposition - low norepinephrine and serotonin activity, high cortisol
    • socio-cultural theorists: social support, stressors
    • cognitive behavioural theorists: learned helplessness, attribution-helplessness theory; global, stable, internal causes, negative hinking / dysfunctional attitudes - illogical thinking processes, automatic thoughts, beck's cognitive triad
  23. biopolar disorder
    • extreme highs and lows
    • formerly: manic depression
    • often cycles with depression
    • lifetime prevalence - 1%
    • treatment - lithium
    • ion flow seems to be an issue in the neuron system
  24. explaining mood disorders: The brain, the person, the group
    • the brain: hereditary factors, frontal lobe, amygdala
    • the person: beck's negative triad, learned helplessness, attributional style
    • the group: life stressors, lack of social reinforcement
  25. anxiety disorders
    • most common group of disorders in canada
    • about 12% of the adult population suffer from an anxiety disorder in any year
    • key features: disabling levels of fear or anxiety that are frequent, severe, persistent, or easily triggered, most people with one anxiety disorder experience another one as well
  26. panic disorder
    • panic attacks
    • agoraphobia
    • lifetime prevalence 3%
    • panic disorder: panic attack plus changes in thinking or behaviour - may misinterpret panic as a sign of medical emergency
    • often accompanied by agoraphobia
  27. generalized anxiety disorder
    • anxiety under most life circumstances; diffuse worry
    • restlessness, edginess, easily tired
    • difficulty concentrating
    • sleep problems
    • 4% of the north american population have symptoms of this disorder in any given year
    • women outnumber men 2 to 1
  28. explanations for generalized anxiety disorder: cognitive-behavioural theorists, neuroscientists
    • cognitive-behavioural theorists: 
    • dysfunctional assumptions
    • assumption that one is in danger
    • intolerance of uncertainty theory: unwilling to accept negative events
    • neuroscientists: 
    • malfunctioning GABA feedback system
    • malfunctioning emotional brain circuit
  29. social anxiety disorder
    • more women than men, more poor people than wealthier people
    • 12% of population develop this at some time in their life
    • often begins in late childhood or adolescence
    • key features: severe, persistent fear of embarrassment in social situations, may be narrow or broad
  30. explanations for social anxiety disorder: cognitive-behavioural theorists:
    dysfunctional cognitions about social situations
  31. phobias
    • life time prevalence - 10% (specific phobia)
    • 7.7% of people in canada suffer from at least one specific phobia in any year
    • key features: persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation
    • explanations: classically conditioned fear, avoidance behaviours are reinforced through operant conditioning
    • modelling of fearful behaviour
  32. panic disorder: explanations
    • malfunctioning brain circuit and excess norepinephrine
    • misinterpretation of bodily sensations
    • -21% of Canadians over 15 years old have suffered from a panic attack at some point
  33. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • key features
    • obsessions: persistent unwanted thoughts (wishes, impulses, doubts, or images
    • compulsions: repetitive, rigid behaviours or mental acts - are often responses to obsessive thoughts, performed to reduce or prevent anxiety
    • lifetime prevalence: 2-3%
  34. obsessive compulsive disorder: explanations (neuroscientists, cognitive behavioural theorists)
    • Neuroscientists: - Low serotonin activity
    • - Overactive orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nuclei
    • Cingulate cortex and hypothalamus activate the OCD impulses
    • - Amygdala drives the fear and anxiety components of the OCD response
    • Cognitive-behavioural theorists: - Learning that compulsive behaviour relieves distress
  35. PTSD
    • Persistent depression, anxiety after a traumatic event (fear, helplessness) 
    • Acute stress disorder (ASD): lasts less than a month and begins within four weeks of the event
    • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): lasts more than a month, may begin shortly after or years after the event

    • Key features: Hyperalertness
    • Easily startled
    • Sleep disturbance
    • Guilt, anxiety, depression, difficulty with concentration
    • Re-experiencing event
    • Avoidance and emotional numbing
  36. Explanations for PTSD
    • Biological factors: Increased cortisol and norepinephrine, Damaged hippocampus, amygdala
    • Personality: external locus of control, anxious
    • Childhood experiences
    • Social and family support
    • Cultural factors

    • 9.2% of Canadians experience PTSD in their lifetime
    • Twice as common in women than men
    •  20% of women who experience a traumatic event 
    • 8% of men who experience a traumatic event 
  37. Dissociative disorders
    • Dissociation: compartmentalization of a set of memories, due to trauma
    • Psychogenic amnesia
    • Selective memory loss
    • Often a response to stress or trauma - e.g., abuse, war, natural disaster
  38. Multiple Personality Disorder: Dissociative Disorders
    • Multiple Personality Disorder: Extreme type of dissociation
    • Associated with stress or trauma
    • Abuse, war, disaster
    • Distinct identities are created
    • treatment of dissociative disorders: therapy, medication 
  39. schizophrenia: positive symptoms
    • Delusions (false beliefs)
    • Hallucinations (false sensory perceptions)
    • Disordered behavior (Inappropriate affect)
    • Disorganized thinking and speech, loose associations or derailment
    • Positive symptoms can be treated with medication
  40. schizophrenia: negative symptoms (pathological deficits)
    • Flat affect (lack of emotional expressiveness)
    • Alogia (poverty of speech)
    • Avolition (lack of motivation)
    • Social withdrawal
    • Negative symptoms are not easily treated
    • Lifetime prevalence: 1%
  41. schizophrenia: psychomotor symptoms
    • Strange movements
    • Catatonia: extreme psychomotor symptoms, Stupor, Rigidity, Posturing, Waxy flexibility
  42. catatonic posturing
    Some people struggling with schizophrenia demonstrate catatonic posturing, where they strike and hold bizarre positions, sometimes for hours
  43. explaining schizophrenia
    • The brain: Hereditary, Ventricle size, Stress-related hormones,The dopamine hypothesis
    • The person: - Emotional dampening
    • The group: - High expressed emotion - Social selection and social causation
  44. explanations for schizophrenia: neuroscientists
    • Genetic predisposition
    • Identical twins: 48% concordance rate
    • Fraternal twins: 17% concordance rate
    • Biochemical abnormalities: excessive dopamine activity
    • Brain structure: enlarged ventricles, small temporal lobes and frontal lobes, structural abnormalities of the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus
    • Diathesis-stress model: Biological predisposition plus negative event 
  45. antisocial personality disorder
    • 1-2% of americans diagnosed
    • ca. 60% of men in the us prisons have it
    • heredity and environment
    • impulse and anger control
  46. Somatoform disorders: conversion, somatization, hypochondriasis, body dysmorphic disorder
    • Somatoform disorders: physical complaint that is psychological in origin
    • Conversion disorder: conflict or need converted into physical symptom; paralysis, blindness, or loss of feeling
    • Somatization disorder: long-term physical ailments that have no organic basis; pain, neurological, gastrointestinal
    • Hypochondriasis: interpret bodily symptoms as signs of a serious
    • Body dysmorphic disorder: deeply concerned about some imagined or minor defect in their appearance
    • Explanations: - Classical conditioning and modelling - Misinterpretation of bodily cues
  47. Dissociative disorders
    • dissociative amnesia: unable to remember important information about a traumatic event; wartime, natural disaster
    • dissociative fugue: forget one's personal identity and flee
    • dissociative identity disorder: two or more distinct personalitites
    • explanations: psychodynamic theorists - repression. Neuroscience: smaller hippocampus and amygdala, changes in the level of activity in the sensory cortex
Card Set
Psyc 16 - class
pscy 16 class