Research Methods II

  1. Type I error
    the rejection of a true null hypothesis
  2. Type II error
    the acceptance of a false null hypothesis
  3. Null hypothesis
    a statement of no relationship between variables; rejected when an observed statistic appears unlikely under the null hypothesis.
  4. Sampling Distributions
    A theoretical distribution that can be specified for any statistic that can be computed for samples from a population
  5. One Tailed Test
    a statistical test where extreme results leading to rejection of the null hypothesis can be located at either tail
  6. Two Tailed Test
    A statistical test where extreme results leading to rejection of null hypothesis will be located at both left and right tails
  7. What can happen when you control for a third variable in a bivariate relationship?
    • 1. Nothing
    • 2. The correlation between X and Y reduces dramatically (Either there is spuriousness or Z is intervening)
    • 3. The relationship between X and Y changes but does not disappear (then Z is a conditional variable)
  8. Issues in Questionnaire Construction
    • What do you want to know? What do you expect respondents to know?
    • Question Content (Fact or Opinion, wording, provide middle alternatives) 
    • Question Type: Closed vs Open-ended
    • Response Format for Closed-ended
    • Question order
  9. What to consider when evaluating a Poll (1)
    • Topic - is it something people know about?
    • Screen for non-attitudes – Did the organization give respondents middle
    • alternatives?
    • Question wording -Did the organization give you the question wordings?
    • Question Order: Questions can be placed to lead respondents in certain ways
  10. What to consider when evaluating a Poll (2)
    • Sample definitions - Probability sample? From what population?
    • Sub-sample sizes and error margins 
    • What happens if certain demographics are pulled
    • out? (error margin increases)
    • Who sponsored the poll?
    • What's the spin?
  11. Advantages of Secondary Analysis
    • Less expensive
    • May be the only source
    • You can replicate/triangulate someone else's research with your own
  12. Disadvantages of Secondary Analysis
    • May only approximate the data you want
    • May have hidden biases
    • Sometimes access is a problem
  13. Advantages of Interviewer-Administered Questionnaires
    • Higher response rate
    • Can probe and clarify
    • Quick turnaround
  14. Disadvantages of Interviewer-Administered Questionnaires
    • High costs
    • Possible interviewer bias
    • No anonymity
  15. Advantages of Self-Administered Questionnaires
    • Low cost
    • No interviewer bias
    • Greater anonymity
    • Considered responses
  16. Disadvantages of Self-Administered Questionnaires
    • Lower Response Rate
    • Requires simple questions and answers
    • Nobody there to clarify/probe
    • Takes time (opportunities for outside phenomena to interfere)
Card Set
Research Methods II
For GSPM Research Methods