Exam III. 7 Lycophyta

  1.                   Lycophyta
    a.       __major genera
    b.      Depending on genus, called __, __, or __
    c.       Lycopodia not found in __
    d.      Evolution of leaves:
                                                                  i.      Two major ways the leaves evolve
    • Three 
    • club mosses, spike mosses,, or quillworts
    • PA
  2. Explain the evolution
    • 1.      Split into two groups
    • a.       Ancestral lycophyte that was homosporous that split into Lycopodia and Selaginella, which are herbaceous plants; the other group produces woody material
    • b.      Three lines are represented today; the other is not (lepidodendrales)
  3. In the past what was up with Lycophytes?

    Approx how old is Lepidodendron?
    • a.       They were the size of trees; very large in size
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Lepidodendron: approximately 300 million years old
  4. a.       Club mosses are __than mosses are
                                                                  i.      Been around a long time; around 395 million years
    b.      All __; none __
    c.       With the exception of bryophytes, the dominant part of the plant is the __
                                                                  i.      __ or __ depending on genus
                                                                ii.      c__ is the reproductive structure of club moss
    1.      Each segment is a __
    2.      The term for a leaf that bears one or more sporangia is called a __
    • larger 
    • herbaceous; none woody
    • sporophyte
    • Homosporous or heterosporous
    • Strobilus (or cone)
    • modified leaf
    • sporophyll
  5. a.       __ is not the criteria to put them together
    b.      They have __
                                                                  i.      Leaves not __, except for __
    c.       __: small leaves; common in __
    • Life cycle
    • vascular tissue: true roots, stems,, and leaves
    • large
    • isoetes
    • Microphylls
    • Lycophyta
  6. a.       Club Mosses (Lycopodium)
                                                                  i.      Location 
    1.      Majority in __
                                                                ii.      __throughout
                                                              iii.      Most produce __, but not all
    1.      There are __not clustered enough to be called a __, but still clustered together
    a.       __looks exactly like vegetative leaves
    b.      Usually, leaves in strobilus are smaller than __, but in some club moss, it’s too hard to tell
    • arctic to tropics
    • tropics
    • Green 
    • strobili
    • sporophylls 
    • cone
    • Sporophyll 
    • vegetative leaves
  7.                                                               i.      Tend to favor areas that are a bit __
    1.      All over Europe
    2.      Like habitats where the soil is __(somewhat)
    a.       Places where __are prominent (why?)
                                                                ii.      In PA, there are some species that are normally found in PA that are endangered or threatened
    • farther north
    • acidic 
    • conifers 
    • conifers make soil acidic
  8.                                                               i.      One of the unique features of the spores of Lycopodia is that they __--> what does this enable?
                                                                ii.      __is very small
    1.      What can happen?

    a.       Water needed for what?
    have a lot of fat in themà

    they burn very easily

    • Gametophyte 
    • Some spores don’t germinate for years (unusual since most germinate right away); so, they get sifted down in soil by rain; usually end up with a gametophyte that has fungi attached to it (symbiotic?); others can be on the surface and lead to regular growth

    the sperm ot get to archegonium
  9.                                                               i.      How does Selaginella differ from Lycopodia
    1.      Selaginella is much more __
    a.       Like __; can do really wel in house in a terrarium; leave them out and they don’t do well
    b.      Like it more __than the club moss
    c.       Not as many species as you would find in the US
    d.      Found in the south, near Texas or Florida
    2.      In general, Selaginella is __ than  Lycopodia
    a.       __are so inconspicuous in the plant

    warmer, more humid environment


    farther south than

  10. What is the selaginella life cycle? Club moss?
    selaginella: hetero

    Club moss: homo
  11. 1.      Heterosporosu
    a.       __ and __ in the same strobilus
                                                                                                                                          i.      Difference in __of sporangia
    1.      Megasporangia produces usually __
    2.      The microsporangia produce __
    b.      When germination, Lycopodia have __
    c.       When germination, Selaginella have __
    • Mega and micro
    • size 
    • only four megaspores
    • numerous 
    • exosporal (not confined by walls of spores)
    • endosporal (gametophytes are very small)
  12.                                                               i.      Quillworts
    1.      __is on the bottom; really __; shaped like a __; down in the sediments
    2.      Location: found in most parts of the US; one psecies is southern; others are western; some are northern ; one species that is native to PA
    3.      A little more widespread in Europe
    4.      Life cycle?
    a.       Sporangium are where?
    • Stem 
    • short
    • tulip bulb
    • Heterosporous
    • at the base of the quilllike leaf (if no strobili
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Exam III. 7 Lycophyta