Sociology Chap 8

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  1. social stratification?
    a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
  2. social mobility?
    a change in position within the social hierarchy
  3. caste system?
    social stratification based on ascription, or birth
  4. class system?
    social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
  5. meritocracy?
    social stratification based on personal merit
  6. status consistency?
    the degree of uniformity in a person's social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
  7. structural social mobility?
    a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts
  8. ideology?
    cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality
  9. Davis-Moore Thesis? 
    the functional analysis claiming that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society
  10. capitalist?
    people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
  11. proletarians?
    people who sell their labor for wages
  12. alienation?
    the experiences of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
  13. blue-collar occupations?
    lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor
  14. white-collar occupations?
    higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity
  15. socioeconomic status (SES)?
    a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality
  16. conspicuous consumption?
    buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
  17. income?
    earnings from work or investments
  18. wealth?
    the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts
  19. intrageneratioanls social mobility?
    a change in social position occurring during a person's lifetime
  20. intergenerational social mobility?
    upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents
  21. relative poverty?
    the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more
  22. absolute poverty?
    a lack of resources that is life threatening
  23. feminization of poverty?
    the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor
  24. What factors in social stratification?
    • is a trait of society 
    • carries over from one generation to the next 
    • supported by a system of cultural beliefs that defines certain kinds of inequality as just 
    • takes two general forms: caste and class
  25. What are factors in Caste System?
    • based on birth (ascription)
    • permit little or no social mobility
    • common in traditional, agrarian societies
  26. What are factors in Class System?
    • based on both birth and meritocracy 
    • permit some social mobility 
    • common in modern industrial and postindustrial societies
  27. What is the structural-functional theory?
    marx saw people's classes defined by the
Card Set
Sociology Chap 8
Chap 8: Social Stratification
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